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    EDEN number Author / Editor / Organization Title Year Journal / Proceedings / Book Type Keywords
    EDEN0158 Alcaide, M.; Rico, C.; Ruiz, S.; Soriguer, R.; Muñoz, J. & Figuerola, J. Disentangling vector-borne transmission networks: a universal DNA barcoding method to identify vertebrate hosts from arthropod bloodmeals 2009 PLoS ONE
    Vol. 4 (9) , pp. e7092  
    article
    Abstract: Emerging infectious diseases represent a challenge for global economies and public health. About one fourth of the last pandemics have been originated by the spread of vector-borne pathogens. In this sense, the advent of modern molecular techniques has enhanced our capabilities to understand vector-host interactions and disease ecology. However, host identification protocols have poorly profited of international DNA barcoding initiatives and/or have focused exclusively on a limited array of vector species. Therefore, ascertaining the potential afforded by DNA barcoding tools in other vector-host systems of human and veterinary importance would represent a major advance in tracking pathogen life cycles and hosts. Here, we show the applicability of a novel and efficient molecular method for the identification of the vertebrate host's DNA contained in the midgut of blood-feeding arthropods. To this end, we designed a eukaryote-universal forward primer and a vertebrate-specific reverse primer to selectively amplify 758 base pairs (bp) of the vertebrate mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I (COI) gene. Our method was validated using both extensive sequence surveys from the public domain and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) experiments carried out over specimens from different Classes of vertebrates (Mammalia, Aves, Reptilia and Amphibia) and invertebrate ectoparasites (Arachnida and Insecta). The analysis of mosquito, culicoid, phlebotomie, sucking bugs, and tick bloodmeals revealed up to 40 vertebrate hosts, including 23 avian, 16 mammalian and one reptilian species. Importantly, the inspection and analysis of direct sequencing electropherograms also assisted the resolving of mixed bloodmeals. We therefore provide a universal and high-throughput diagnostic tool for the study of the ecology of haematophagous invertebrates in relation to their vertebrate hosts. Such information is crucial to support the efficient management of initiatives aimed at reducing epidemiologic risks of arthropod vector-borne pathogens, a priority for public health.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0158,
      author = {Alcaide, M. and Rico, C. and Ruiz, S. and Soriguer, R. and Muñoz, J. and Figuerola, J.},
      title = {Disentangling vector-borne transmission networks: a universal DNA barcoding method to identify vertebrate hosts from arthropod bloodmeals},
      journal = {PLoS ONE},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {4},
      number = {9},
      pages = {e7092},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007092}
    }
    					
    Alten2007 Alten, B.; Kampen, H. & Fontenille, D. Takken, W. & Knols, B. (Hrsg.) Malaria in Southern Europe: resurgence from the past? 2007 Emerging pests and vector-borne diseases in Europe , pp. 35-58   inproceedings
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Alten2007,
      author = {Alten, B. and Kampen, H. and Fontenille, D.},
      title = {Malaria in Southern Europe: resurgence from the past?},
      booktitle = {Emerging pests and vector-borne diseases in Europe},
      publisher = {Wageningen Academic Publishers},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {35-58}
    }
    					
    EDEN0012 Atkinson, P.M. & Graham, A.J. Issues of scale and uncertainty in the global remote sensing of disease 2006 Advances in Parasitology
    Vol. 62 , pp. 79-118  
    article
    Abstract: Scale and uncertainty are important issues for the global prediction of disease. Disease mapping over the entire surface of the Earth usually involves the use of remotely sensed imagery to provide environmental covariates of disease risk or disease vector density. It further implies that the spatial resolution of such imagery is relatively coarse (e.g., 8 or 1km). Use of a coarse spatial resolution limits the information that can be extracted from imagery and has important effects on the results of epidemiological analyses. This paper discusses geostatistical models for (i) characterizing the scale(s) of spatial variation in data and (ii) changing the scale of measurement of both the data and the geostatistical model. Uncertainty is introduced, highlighting the fact that most epidemiologists are interested in accuracy, aspects of which can be estimated with measurable quantities. This paper emphasizes the distinction between data- and model-based methods of accuracy assessment and gives examples of both. The key problem of validating global maps is considered.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0012,
      author = {P. M. Atkinson and A. J. Graham},
      title = {Issues of scale and uncertainty in the global remote sensing of disease},
      journal = {Advances in Parasitology},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {62},
      pages = {79--118},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-308X(05)62003-9}
    }
    					
    EDEN0113 Balança, G.; Gaidet, N.; Savini, G.; Vollot, B.; Foucart, A.; Reiter, P.; Boutonnier, A.; Lelli, R. & Monicat, F. Low West Nile virus circulation in wild birds in an area of recurring outbreaks in southern France 2009 Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
    Vol. 9 (6) , pp. 737-741  
    article
    Abstract: Abstract West Nile virus (WNV) has a history of irregular but recurrent epizootics in countries of Mediterranean and of Central and Eastern Europe. We have investigated the temporal enzootic activity of WNV in free-ranging birds over a 3-year period in an area with sporadic occurrences of WNV outbreaks in Southern France. We conducted an intensive serologic survey on several wild bird populations (>4000 serum samples collected from 3300 birds) selected as potential indicators of the WNV circulation. WNV antibodies were detected by seroneutralization and/or plaque reduction neutralization in house sparrows, black-billed magpies, and scops owls, but these species appeared to be insufficient indicators of WNV circulation. Overall seroprevalence was low (<1, including in birds that had been potentially exposed to the virus during recent outbreaks. However, the detection of a seroconversion in one bird, as well as the detection of seropositive birds in all years of our monitoring, including juveniles, indicate a constant annual circulation of WNV at a low level, including in years without any detectable emergence of WN fever in horses or humans.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0113,
      author = {Gilles Balança and Nicolas Gaidet and Giovanni Savini and Benjamin Vollot and Antoine Foucart and Paul Reiter and Alain Boutonnier and Rossella Lelli and François Monicat},
      title = {Low West Nile virus circulation in wild birds in an area of recurring outbreaks in southern France},
      journal = {Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {9},
      number = {6},
      pages = {737--741},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2008.0147}
    }
    					
    EDEN0099 Barandika, J.F.; Hurtado, A.; García-Sanmartín, J.; Juste, R.A.; Anda, P. & García-Pérez, A.L. Prevalence of tick-borne zoonotic bacteria in questing adult ticks from northern Spain 2008 Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
    Vol. 8 (6) , pp. 829-836  
    article
    Abstract: A total of 691 questing adult ixodid ticks of the genera Ixodes, Haemaphysalis, Dermacentor, and Rhipicephalus were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse line blot (RLB) for the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Coxiella burnetii, Borrelia spp., and spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae. Ticks were collected by blanket dragging during 2 sampling years (2003-2005) in 10 recreational areas in the Basque Country (Northern Spain). Adult ticks were collected every month of the year and eight different species were identified among which Ixodes ricinus was the most abundant and widespread. Three pathogens for humans, Borrelia burgdorferi, A. phagocytophilum, and C. burnetii, as well as rickettsiae of unknown pathogenicity were detected. The latter were identified as Rickettsia sp. RpA4/DnS14 by sequencing of the citrate synthase (gltA) gene. The infection rates varied from 0.16.9 DNA of A. phagocytophilum was detected mainly in I. ricinus, but also in Haemaphysalis punctata, H. concinna, and Rhipicephalus bursa. Coxiella burnetii was detected in only one specimen of H. punctata, and Borrelia spp. in eight ticks. Furthermore, PCR-RLB analysis specific for B. burgdorferi sensu lato detected one H. punctata with positive hybridization with the B. burgdorferi sensu stricto probe, and two I. ricinus positive for B. afzelii and B. garinii. SFG rickettsiae were the pathogens most frequently found, present in 48 of 97 D. reticulatus analyzed. Mixed infections were not found in any of the analyzed ticks. These results are compared and discussed with data obtained in previous studies carried out in the same and other regions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0099,
      author = {Jesus F Barandika and Ana Hurtado and Josune García-Sanmartín and Ramon A Juste and Pedro Anda and Ana L García-Pérez},
      title = {Prevalence of tick-borne zoonotic bacteria in questing adult ticks from northern Spain},
      journal = {Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {8},
      number = {6},
      pages = {829--836},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2008.0023}
    }
    					
    EDEN0152 Boubidi, S.C.; Gassen, I.; Khechache, Y.; Lamali, K.; Tchicha, B.; Brengues, Cé.; Menegon, M.; Severini, C.; Fontenille, D. & Harrat, Z. Plasmodium falciparum, malaria, southern Algeria, 2007 2010 Emerging Infectious Diseases
    Vol. 16 (2) , pp. 301-303  
    article
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0152,
      author = {Boubidi, Saïd C. and Gassen, Ibrahim and Khechache, Yacine and Lamali, Karima and Tchicha, Boualem and Brengues, Cécile and Menegon, Michela and Severini, Carlo and Fontenille, Didier and Harrat, Zoubir},
      title = {Plasmodium falciparum, malaria, southern Algeria, 2007},
      journal = {Emerging Infectious Diseases},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {16},
      number = {2},
      pages = {301--303},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1602.090914}
    }
    					
    EDEN0033 Bryja, J.; Charbonnel, N.; Berthier, K.; Galan, M. & Cosson, J.-F. Density-related changes in selection pattern for major histocompatibility complex genes in fluctuating populations of voles 2007 Molecular Ecology
    Vol. 16 (23) , pp. 5084-5097  
    article animals; arvicolinae; gene frequency; genes, mhc class ii; genetics, population; genotype; hla-dq antigens; hla-dr antigens; microsatellite repeats; molecular sequence data; population density; selection (genetics); sequence analysis, dna; variation (genetics)
    Abstract: Host-pathogen interactions are of particular interest in studies of the interplay between population dynamics and natural selection. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes of demographically fluctuating species are highly suitable markers for such studies, because they are involved in initiating the immune response against pathogens and display a high level of adaptive genetic variation. We investigated whether two MHC class II genes (DQA1, DRB) were subjected to contemporary selection during increases in the density of fossorial water vole (Arvicola terrestris) populations, by comparing the neutral genetic structure of seven populations with that estimated from MHC genes. Tests for heterozygosity excess indicated that DQA1 was subject to intense balancing selection. No such selection operated on neutral markers. This pattern of selection became more marked with increasing abundance. In the low-abundance phase, when populations were geographically isolated, both overall differentiation and isolation-by-distance were more marked for MHC genes than for neutral markers. Model-based simulations identified DQA1 as an outlier (i.e. under selection) in a single population, suggesting the action of local selection in fragmented populations. The differences between MHC and neutral markers gradually disappeared with increasing effective migration between sites. In the high-abundance year, DQA1 displayed significantly lower levels of overall differentiation than the neutral markers. This gene therefore displayed stronger homogenization than observed under drift and migration alone. The observed signs of selection were much weaker for DRB. Spatial and temporal fluctuations in parasite pressure and locus-specific selection are probably the most plausible mechanisms underlying the observed changes in selection pattern during the demographic cycle.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0033,
      author = {J. Bryja and N. Charbonnel and K. Berthier and M. Galan and J-F. Cosson},
      title = {Density-related changes in selection pattern for major histocompatibility complex genes in fluctuating populations of voles},
      journal = {Molecular Ecology},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {16},
      number = {23},
      pages = {5084--5097},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2007.03584.x}
    }
    					
    EDEN0006 Bryja, J.; Galan, M.; Charbonnel, N. & Cosson, J.F. Duplication, balancing selection and trans-species evolution explain the high levels of polymorphism of the DQA MHC class II gene in voles (Arvicolinae). 2006 Immunogenetics
    Vol. 58 (2-3) , pp. 191-202  
    article alleles; amino acid sequence; animals; arvicolinae; base sequence; cloning, molecular; electrophoresis, capillary; evolution, molecular; gene duplication; genes, mhc class ii; hla-dq antigens; molecular sequence data; phylogeny; polymorphism, single-stranded conformational; sequence analysis, dna
    Abstract: Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes play important role in host-parasite interactions and parasites are crucial factors influencing the population dynamics of hosts. We described the structure and diversity of exon 2 of the MHC class II DQA gene in three species of voles (Arvicolinae) exhibiting regular multi-annual fluctuations of population density and analysed the processes leading to the observed MHC polymorphism. By using cloning-sequencing methodology and capillary electrophoresis-single strand conformation polymorphism, we described seven sequences in the water, eight in the common, and seven in the bank voles coming from an area of 70 km(2) around the Nozeroy canton in the Jura Mountains (Franche Comté, France). All exon 2 sequences translate to give unique amino acid sequences and positive selection was found to act very intensively on antigen binding sites. We documented the presence of recombination at vole DQA region but its importance in generating allelic polymorphism seems to be relatively limited. For the first time within rodents, we documented the duplication of the DQA gene in all three species with both copies being transcriptionally active. Phylogenetic analysis of allelic sequences revealed extensive trans-species polymorphism within the subfamily although no alleles were shared between species in our data set. We discuss possible role of parasites in forming the recent polymorphism pattern of the DQA locus in voles.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0006,
      author = {J. Bryja and M. Galan and N. Charbonnel and J. F. Cosson},
      title = {Duplication, balancing selection and trans-species evolution explain the high levels of polymorphism of the DQA MHC class II gene in voles (Arvicolinae).},
      journal = {Immunogenetics},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {58},
      number = {2-3},
      pages = {191--202},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00251-006-0085-6}
    }
    					
    EDEN0144 Capinha, C.; Gomes, E.; Reis, E.; Rocha, J.; Sousa, C.; do Rosário, V. & Almeida, A. Present habitat suitability for Anopheles atroparvus (Diptera, Culicidae) and its coincidence with former malaria areas in mainland Portugal 2009 Geospatial Health
    Vol. 3 (2) , pp. 177-187  
    article anopheles atroparvus, habitat suitability, malaria, geographical information system
    Abstract: Malaria was a major health problem in the first half of the 20th Century in mainland Portugal. Nowadays, although the disease is no longer endemic, there is still the risk of future endemic infections due to the continuous occurrence of imported cases and the possibility of transmission in the country by Anopheles atroparvus Van Thiel, 1927. Since vector abundance constitute one of the foremost factors in malaria transmission, we have created several habitat suitability models to describe this vector species’ current distribution. Three different correlative models; namely (i) a multilayer perceptron artificial neural network (MLP-ANN); (ii) binary logistic regression (BLR); and (iii) Mahalanobis
    distance were used to combine the species records with a set of five environmental predictors. Kappa coefficient values from k-fold cross-validation records showed that binary logistic regression produced the best predictions, while the other two models also produced acceptable results. Therefore, in order to reduce uncertainty, the three suitability models were combined. The resulting model identified high suitability for An. atroparvus in the majority of the country with exception of the northern and central coastal areas. Malaria distribution during the last endemic period in the country was also compared with the combined suitability model, and a high degree of spatial agreement was obtained (kappa = 0.62). It was concluded that habitat suitability for malaria vectors can constitute valuable information on the assessment
    of several spatial attributes of the disease. In addition, the results suggest that the spatial distribution of An. atroparvus in the country remains very similar to the one known about seven decades ago.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0144,
      author = {Capinha, C. and Gomes, E. and Reis, E. and Rocha, J. and Sousa, C.A. and do Rosário, VE and Almeida, A.P.},
      title = {Present habitat suitability for Anopheles atroparvus (Diptera, Culicidae) and its coincidence with former malaria areas in mainland Portugal},
      journal = {Geospatial Health},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {3},
      number = {2},
      pages = {177--187}
    }
    					
    EDEN0105 Carpi, G.; Bertolotti, L.; Pecchioli, E.; Cagnacci, F. & Rizzoli, A. Anaplasma phagocytophilum groEL gene heterogeneity in Ixodes ricinus larvae feeding on roe deer in northeastern Italy 2009 Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
    Vol. 9 (2) , pp. 179-184  
    article
    Abstract: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne pathogen with both veterinary and human health implications. The role of wildlife hosts for this pathogen are not well defined, even though roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) has been suggested to contribute to the occurrence of this tick-borne diseases in Europe. Therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate the potential role of this ungulate species as a reservoir of human pathogenic strains of A. phagocytophilum in a tick-borne diseases endemic area in Northeastern Italy. Ixodes ricinus feeding on roe deer were collected and analyzed for the presence for A. phagocytophilum by a molecular approach targeting 16S rRNA and groEL genes. The mean prevalence of A. phagocytophilum recorded was 5.11 highlighting the ability of roe deer to infect the I. ricinus larval stage. The results of further genetic characterization of the strains of A. phagocytophilum herein isolated, based on phylogenetic information contained in groEL gene sequences, showed substantial heterogeneity among sequences analyzed. Nevertheless, these findings suggest that the roe deer population of the Trentino region of Italy harbors strains of A. phagocytophilum of unknown pathogenicity for humans.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0105,
      author = {Giovanna Carpi and Luigi Bertolotti and Elena Pecchioli and Francesca Cagnacci and Annapaola Rizzoli},
      title = {Anaplasma phagocytophilum groEL gene heterogeneity in Ixodes ricinus larvae feeding on roe deer in northeastern Italy},
      journal = {Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {9},
      number = {2},
      pages = {179--184},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2008.0068}
    }
    					
    EDEN0160 Carpi, G.; Bertolotti, L.; Rosati, S. & Rizzoli, A. Prevalence and genetic variability of tick-borne encephalitis virus in host-seeking Ixodes ricinus in northern Italy 2009 Journal of General Virology
    Vol. 90 , pp. 2877-2883  
    article
    Abstract: Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a severe disease endemic in northeast Italy since 1992. Over the past two decades there has been an increase in the number of human cases reported in many European countries, including Italy. To assess the current TBE infection risk, questing ticks were collected from known TBE foci, as well as a site in northern Italy where no human infections have been previously reported. A total of 1739 Ixodes ricinus (1485 nymphs and 254 adults) were collected and analysed for TBEV prevalence by means of real time RT-PCR targeting the 3'UTR region. Phylogenetic analyses of the partial envelope gene were conducted on two newly TBEV sequenced strains and 28 previously published sequences to investigate the genealogical relationships of the circulating TBEV strains. These phylogenetic analyses confirmed a previous report that the European TBEV subtype is the only subtype circulating within the TBE foci in northeast Italy. Interestingly, nucleotide sequence analysis revealed a high degree of divergence (mean = 2.54%) between the TBEV strains recovered in the Italian province of Trento despite the circulation of a single TBEV subtype. This elevated genetic variability within a single TBE focus may reflect local differences in the long-standing evolutionary dynamics of TBEV at this site relative to previously characterized sites or more recent and continuous reintroduction of various TBEV strains.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0160,
      author = {Carpi, Giovanna and Bertolotti, Luigi and Rosati, Sergio and Rizzoli, Annapaola},
      title = {Prevalence and genetic variability of tick-borne encephalitis virus in host-seeking Ixodes ricinus in northern Italy},
      journal = {Journal of General Virology},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {90},
      pages = {2877--2883},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/vir.0.013367-0}
    }
    					
    EDEN0068 Carpi, G.; Cagnacci, F.; Neteler, M. & Rizzoli, A. Tick infestation on roe deer in relation to geographic and remotely sensed climatic variables in a tick-borne encephalitis endemic area 2007 Epidemiology and Infection
    Vol. 136 , pp. 1416-1424  
    article
    Abstract: SUMMARYRoe deer Capreolus capreolus are among the most important feeding hosts for the sheep tick Ixodes ricinus, thus contributing to the occurrence of tick-borne diseases in Europe. Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), which is transmitted by co-feeding of larvae and nymphs on rodents, requires precise climatic conditions to occur. We used roe deer as sentinels for potential circulation of TBE virus in Northern Italy, by examining the association between tick infestation, occurrence of TBE human cases, geographical and climatic parameters. Tick infestation on roe deer, and particularly frequency of co-feeding, was clearly associated with the geographic location and the autumnal cooling rate. Consistently, TBE occurrence in humans was geographically related to co-feeding tick abundance. The surveillance of tick infestation on roe deer, combined with remotely sensed climatic data, could therefore be used as an inexpensive early risk assessment tool of favourable conditions for TBE emergence and persistence in humans.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0068,
      author = {G. Carpi and F. Cagnacci and M. Neteler and A. Rizzoli},
      title = {Tick infestation on roe deer in relation to geographic and remotely sensed climatic variables in a tick-borne encephalitis endemic area},
      journal = {Epidemiology and Infection},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {136},
      pages = {1416--1424},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268807000039}
    }
    					
    EDEN0194 Chamaillé, L.; Tran, A.; Meunier, A.; Bourdoiseau, G.; Ready, P. & Dedet, J.-P. Environmental risk mapping of canine leishmaniasis in France 2010 Parasites & Vectors
    Vol. 3 (1) , pp. 31  
    article
    Abstract: BACKGROUND:Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum, a Trypanosomatid protozoan transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. Leishmaniasis is endemic in southern France, but the influences of environmental and climatic factors on its maintenance and emergence remain poorly understood. From a retrospective database, including all the studies reporting prevalence or incidence of CanL in France between 1965 and 2007, we performed a spatial analysis in order to i) map the reported cases in France, and ii) produce an environment-based map of the areas at risk for CanL. We performed a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) followed by a Hierarchical Ascendant Classification (HAC) to assess if the locations of CanL could be grouped according to environmental variables related to climate, forest cover, and human and dog densities. For each group, the potential distribution of CanL in France was mapped using a species niche modelling approach (Maxent model).RESULTS:Results revealed the existence of two spatial groups of CanL cases. The first group is located in the Cevennes region (southern Massif Central), at altitudes of 200-1000 m above sea level, characterized by relatively low winter temperatures (1.9degreesC average), 1042 mm average annual rainfall and much forest cover. The second group is located on the Mediterranean coastal plain, characterized by higher temperatures, lower rainfall and less forest cover. These two groups may correspond to the environments favoured by the two sandfly vectors in France, Phlebotomus ariasi and Phlebotomus perniciosus respectively. Our niche modelling of these two eco-epidemiological patterns was based on environmental variables and led to the first risk map for CanL in France.CONCLUSION:Results show how an ecological approach can help to improve our understanding of the spatial distribution of CanL in France.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0194,
      author = {Chamaillé, Lise and Tran, Annelise and Meunier, Anne and Bourdoiseau, Gilles and Ready, Paul and Dedet, Jean-Pierre},
      title = {Environmental risk mapping of canine leishmaniasis in France},
      journal = {Parasites & Vectors},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {3},
      number = {1},
      pages = {31},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-3-31}
    }
    					
    EDEN0007 Charbonnel, N.; Chaval, Y.; Berthier, K.; Deter, J.; Morand, S.; Palme, R. & Cosson, J.-F.. Stress and demographic decline: a potential effect mediated by impairment of reproduction and immune function in cyclic vole populations 2008 Physiological and Biochemical Zoology
    Vol. 81 (1) , pp. 63-73  
    article animals; arvicolinae; corticosterone; ecosystem; feces; population dynamics; reproduction; seasons; stress; time factors
    Abstract: The stress response is initially adaptive, operating to maintain homeostasis. However, chronic long-term exposure to stressors may have detrimental effects. We proposed that chronic stress may be a major factor in demographic vole cycles, inducing decline in high-density populations. We monitored four populations of the fossorial water vole Arvicola scherman, which undergo pluriannual demographic cycles in the Jura Mountains (France). Sampling was conducted during the high densities and the decline. We measured fecal corticosterone metabolites (FCMs) to assess stress levels and injected phytohemagglutinin to estimate the cell-mediated immune response. We demonstrated that stress levels increase between the high densities and the decline in most of the vole populations. At the individual level, FCM concentrations varied with reproductive status and body condition. During the outbreak, we observed significantly higher levels of FCM concentrations in nulliparous females than in females that had previously reproduced. Moreover, a significant negative correlation was observed between concentrations of FCMs and both immunocompetence and body condition during population decline. These results might reflect an impairment of the female reproductive capability in high densities and accelerated senescence affecting immune function during decline, both arising from chronic stress.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0007,
      author = {Charbonnel, N. and Chaval, Y. and Berthier, K. and Deter, J. and Morand, S. and Palme, R. and Cosson, J.-F.},
      title = {Stress and demographic decline: a potential effect mediated by impairment of reproduction and immune function in cyclic vole populations},
      journal = {Physiological and Biochemical Zoology},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {81},
      number = {1},
      pages = {63--73},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/523306}
    }
    					
    EDEN0037 Charbonnel, N.; Deter, J.; Chaval, Y.; Laakkonen, J.; Henttonen, H.; Voutilainen, L.; Vapalahti, O.; Vaheri, A.; Morand, S. & Cosson, J.-F. Serological evidence of viruses naturally associated with the Montane Water Vole (Arvicola scherman) in Eastern France 2008 Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
    Vol. 8 (6) , pp. 763-768  
    article
    Abstract: We surveyed 12 populations of the montane water vole (Arvicola scherman), previously known as the fossorial form of the water vole A. terrestris, in eastern France for antibodies (immunoglobulin G) to Puumala virus (PUUV), lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), and cowpox virus (CPXV). Antibodies to PUUV were found in 9 (5.5 of 164 voles from 7 populations, antibodies to LCMV were found in 13 (26.0 of 50 voles from 2 populations, and antibodies to CPXV were found in 66 (41.8 of 158 voles from 7 populations. Antibody status to CPXV was statistically associated with the phase of the A. scherman population density cycle and the percentage of grassland areas surrounding the sampling sites.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0037,
      author = {Nathalie Charbonnel and Julie Deter and Yannick Chaval and Juha Laakkonen and Heikki Henttonen and Liina Voutilainen and Olli Vapalahti and Antti Vaheri and Serge Morand and Jean-François Cosson},
      title = {Serological evidence of viruses naturally associated with the Montane Water Vole (Arvicola scherman) in Eastern France},
      journal = {Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {8},
      number = {6},
      pages = {763--768},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2007.0167}
    }
    					
    EDEN0188 Chevalier, V.; Dupressoir, A.; Tran, A.; Diop, 0..M.; Gottland, C.; Diallo, M.; Etter, E.; Ndiaye, M.; Grosbois, V.; Dia, M.; Gaidet, N.; Sall, A.A.; Soti, V. & Niang, M. Environmental risk factors of West Nile virus infection of horses in the Senegal River basin 2010 Epidemiology and Infection
    Vol. First View , pp. 1-9  
    article
    Abstract: ABSTRACT SUMMARYIn 2005, a serological study was carried out on horses in five ecologically contrasted zones of the Senegal River basin (Senegal) to assess West Nile virus (WNV) transmission and investigate underlying environmental risk factors. In each study zone, horses were randomly selected and blood samples taken. A land-cover map of the five study areas was built using two satellite ETM+ images. Blood samples were screened by ELISA for anti-WNV IgM and IgG and positive samples were confirmed by seroneutralization. Environmental data were analysed using a principal components analysis. The overall IgG seroprevalence rate was 85% (n=367; 95% CI 00&#183;89). The proximity to sea water, flooded banks and salted mudflats were identified as protective factors. These environmental components are unfavourable to the presence of Culex mosquitoes suggesting that in Senegal, the distribution of the vector species is more limiting for WNV transmission than for the hosts' distribution.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0188,
      author = {Chevalier, V. and Dupressoir, A. and Tran, A. and Diop, 0. M. and Gottland, C. and Diallo, M. and Etter, E. and Ndiaye, M. and Grosbois, V. and Dia, M. and Gaidet, N. and Sall, A. A. and Soti, V. And Niang, M.},
      title = {Environmental risk factors of West Nile virus infection of horses in the Senegal River basin},
      journal = {Epidemiology and Infection},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {First View},
      pages = {1-9},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S095026881000035X}
    }
    					
    EDEN0197 Chevalier, V.; Pépin, M.; Plée, L. & Lancelot, R. Rift Valley fever - A threat for Europe? 2010 Eurosurveillance
    Vol. 15 (10) , pp. pii=19506  
    article
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0197,
      author = {Chevalier, V. and Pépin, M. and Plée, L. and Lancelot, R.},
      title = {Rift Valley fever - A threat for Europe?},
      journal = {Eurosurveillance},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {15},
      number = {10},
      pages = {pii=19506}
    }
    					
    EDEN0116 Chevalier, V.; Reynaud, P.; Lefrançois, T.; Durand, B.; Baillon, F.; Balança, G.; Gaidet, N.; Mondet, B. & Lancelot, R. Predicting West Nile virus seroprevalence in wild birds in Senegal 2009 Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
    Vol. 9 (6) , pp. 589-596  
    article
    Abstract: West Nile fever epidemiology is complex, and the role of birds in the maintenance, amplification, and dissemination of the West Nile virus (WNV) remains partially unknown. In 2003, a serological study was performed in Senegal, where West Nile infection is considered endemic. The goal was to identify potential reservoirs of WNV among bird species present in the Ferlo area (northern Senegal) and the Senegal River Valley, and to screen the ecological factors possibly related to West Nile infection. Serological data were analyzed using a generalized linear model. Statistical association between ecological factors and the risk of infection were then modeled to derive a species-specific risk. A cross-validation was conducted. The overall observed prevalence rate was 5.5% (n = 422). Thirteen bird species were found positive, from which five were migrating: Lanius senator, Anthus trivialis, Hippolais opaca, Jynx torquilla, and Cercotrichas galactotes. The nesting type in resident birds was positively correlated with the risk of infection (odds ratio [OR] = 11, p = 0.0003); the gregariousness level of birds appeared as a protective factor (OR = 0.3, p = 0.01). The predicted prevalence varied between 1% and 39% for resident species and between 1% and 7% for migrating species. Results of model internal validation were satisfactory at the individual and species level. However, more field and experimental investigations are needed to confirm these preliminary results and help target the future research and surveillance in Senegal.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0116,
      author = {Veronique Chevalier and Pierre Reynaud and Thierry Lefrançois and Benoit Durand and Francois Baillon and Gilles Balança and Nicolas Gaidet and Bernard Mondet and Renaud Lancelot},
      title = {Predicting West Nile virus seroprevalence in wild birds in Senegal},
      journal = {Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {9},
      number = {6},
      pages = {589--596},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2008.0130}
    }
    					
    EDEN0148 Chevalier, V.; Thiongane, Y. & Lancelot, R. Endemic transmission of Rift Valley fever in Senegal 2009 Transboundary Emerging Disease
    Vol. 56 (9-10) , pp. 372-374  
    article
    Abstract: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an expanding zoonotic disease transmitted from ruminant to ruminant by Culicidae mosquitoes. In 2004, a longitudinal serological survey was performed on small ruminants in the Ferlo are (Senegal) to study RVF transmission and compared the results with those obtained from the same study in 2003. The results confirm that the disease is endemic and that the spatial transmission of RVF is highly heterogeneous. The virus could be maintained during dry season by transovarian transmission in Aedes vexans. Further studies are needed to improve the understanding of the epidemiological cycle of RVF in this region to implement adapted surveillance measures.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0148,
      author = {V. Chevalier and Y. Thiongane and R. Lancelot},
      title = {Endemic transmission of Rift Valley fever in Senegal},
      journal = {Transboundary Emerging Disease},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {56},
      number = {9--10},
      pages = {372--374},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1865-1682.2009.01083.x}
    }
    					
    EDEN0214 Chevallier, D.; Handrich, Y.; Georges, J.-Y.; Baillon, F.; Brossault, P.; Aurouet, A.; Le Maho, Y. & Massemin, S. Influence of weather conditions on the flight of migrating black storks 2010 Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
    Vol. On-line preview , pp. -  
    article
    Abstract: This study tested the potential influence of meteorological parameters (temperature, humidity, wind direction, thermal convection) on different migration characteristics (namely flight speed, altitude and direction and daily distance) in 16 black storks (). The birds were tracked by satellite during their entire autumnal and spring migration, from 1998 to 2006. Our data reveal that during their 27-day-long migration between Europe and Africa (mean distance of 4100 km), the periods of maximum flight activity corresponded to periods of maximum thermal energy, underlining the importance of atmospheric thermal convection in the migratory flight of the black stork. In some cases, tailwind was recorded at the same altitude and position as the birds, and was associated with a significant rise in flight speed, but wind often produced a side azimuth along the birds' migratory route. Whatever the season, the distance travelled daily was on average shorter in Europe than in Africa, with values of 200 and 270 km d, respectively. The fastest instantaneous flight speeds of up to 112 km h were also observed above Africa. This observation confirms the hypothesis of thermal-dependant flight behaviour, and also reveals differences in flight costs between Europe and Africa. Furthermore, differences in food availability, a crucial factor for black storks during their flight between Europe and Africa, may also contribute to the above-mentioned shift in daily flight speeds.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0214,
      author = {Chevallier, D. and Handrich, Y. and Georges, J.-Y. and Baillon, F. and Brossault, P. and Aurouet, A. and Le Maho, Y. and Massemin, S.},
      title = {Influence of weather conditions on the flight of migrating black storks},
      journal = {Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {On-line preview},
      pages = {-},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2010.0422}
    }
    					
    EDEN0189 Coipan, E. & Vladimirescu, A. First report of lyme disease spirochetes in ticks from Romania (Sibiu County) 2010 Experimental and Applied Acarology
    Vol. March 2010 , pp. -  
    article
    Abstract: Abstract&nbsp;&nbsp;We examined 200 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks (nymphs and adults) collected in three different sites in Sibiu County, Romania by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by reverse line blot (RLB) for Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.. We detected the bacteria in 19% of the investigated ticks. The prevalence of infection was higher in nymphs (27%) than in adults (12%). Two B. burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies were detected: B. garinii (20%) and B. afzelii (80%). We did not detect any mixed infections in the investigated ticks. In two of the investigated sites B. burgdorferi prevalence values were comparable (25%), while in the third site the prevalence was lower (˜7%). Our preliminary study provides evidence that Lyme disease spirochetes are present in various areas and at a relatively high prevalence in their vectors, thus posing a risk of infection to human subjects that undergo work or leisure activities in those areas.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0189,
      author = {Coipan, Elena and Vladimirescu, Alexandru},
      title = {First report of lyme disease spirochetes in ticks from Romania (Sibiu County)},
      journal = {Experimental and Applied Acarology},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {March 2010},
      pages = {--},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-010-9353-0}
    }
    					
    EDEN0003 Davis, S.; Calvet, E. & Leirs, H. Fluctuating rodent populations and risk to humans from rodent-borne zoonoses 2005 Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
    Vol. 5 (4) , pp. 305-314  
    article force of infection, hantavirus, plague.
    Abstract: The fluctuations in abundance of a wildlife reservoir are an attractive explanation for temporal variation in primary human cases of a zoonosis. This is because high abundance may lead to more contact between humans and animals, but also to outbreaks of disease within the reservoir population. We propose a mathematical framework that sets out the consequences of correlation between reservoir abundance and reservoir prevalence for how numbers of human cases are related to reservoir abundance. The fluctuations of rodent populations are well studied and often dramatic. A review of field studies of rodent reservoirs for plague, hantaviruses, and other zoonoses shows that, at a seasonal time scale, a positive correlation between host abundance and host prevalence is rarely observed. More commonly, there is an inverse relationship or negative correlation such that a seasonal increase in rodent abundance is not accompanied by a corresponding increase in the abundance of infectious animals. Seasonal changes in rodent abundance are hence unlikely to fully explain seasonal variation in primary human cases. The few longer field studies (5 years) show a positive but delayed relationship between reservoir abundance and reservoir prevalence.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0003,
      author = {Davis, S. and Calvet, E. and Leirs, H.},
      title = {Fluctuating rodent populations and risk to humans from rodent-borne zoonoses},
      journal = {Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {5},
      number = {4},
      pages = {305-314},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2005.5.305}
    }
    					
    EDEN0036 De La Rocque, S.; Tran, A.; Etter, E.; Vial, L. & Hendrickx, G. Environmental changes, disease ecology and geographic information system-based tools for risk assessment 2007 Veterinaria Italiana
    Vol. 43 (3) , pp. 381-391  
    article
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0036,
      author = {De La Rocque, S. and Tran, A. and Etter, E. and Vial, L. and Hendrickx, G.},
      title = {Environmental changes, disease ecology and geographic information system-based tools for risk assessment},
      journal = {Veterinaria Italiana},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {43},
      number = {3},
      pages = {381--391}
    }
    					
    EDEN0140 Deffontaine, V.; Ledevin, R.; Fontaine, M.C.; Quéré, J.-P.; Renaud, S.; Libois, R. & Michaux, J.R. A relict bank vole lineage highlights the biogeographic history of the Pyrenean region in Europe 2009 Molecular Ecology
    Vol. 18 (11) , pp. 2489-2502  
    article bank vole; basque country; glacial refugia; mitochondrial dna; molar morphology; phylogeography; pyrenees
    Abstract: The Pyrenean region exhibits high levels of endemism suggesting a major contribution to the phylogeography of European species. But, to date, the role of the Pyrenees and surrounding areas as a glacial refugium for temperate species remains poorly explored. In the current study, we investigated the biogeographic role of the Pyrenean region through the analyses of genetic polymorphism and morphology of a typical forest-dwelling small mammal, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). Analyses of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and the third upper molar (M3) show a complex phylogeographic structure in the Pyrenean region with at least three distinct lineages: the Western European, Spanish and Basque lineages. The Basque lineage in the northwestern (NW) Pyrenees was identified as a new clearly differentiated and geographically localized bank vole lineage in Europe. The average M3 shape of Basque bank voles suggests morphological differentiation but also restricted genetic exchanges with other populations. Our genetic and morphological results as well as palaeo-environmental and fossils records support the hypothesis of a new glacial refugium in Europe situated in the NW Pyrenees. The permissive microclimatic conditions that prevailed for a long time in this region may have allowed the survival of temperate species, including humans. Moreover, local differentiation around the Pyrenees is favoured by the opportunity for populations to track the shift of the vegetation belt in altitude rather than in latitude. The finding of the Basque lineage is in agreement with the high level of endemic taxa reported in the NW Pyrenees.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0140,
      author = {Deffontaine, Valérie and Ledevin, Ronan and Fontaine, Michael C. and Quéré, Jean-Pierre and Renaud, Sabrina and Libois, Roland and Michaux, Johan R.},
      title = {A relict bank vole lineage highlights the biogeographic history of the Pyrenean region in Europe},
      journal = {Molecular Ecology},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {18},
      number = {11},
      pages = {2489-2502},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2009.04162.x}
    }
    					
    EDEN0092 Deffontaine-Deurbroeck, V. Histoire évolutive du campagnol roussâtre (Myodes (Clethrionomys) glareolus) en Eurasie 2008 , pp. 170 p. School: Université de Liège   phdthesis
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{EDEN0092,
      author = {Deffontaine-Deurbroeck, V.},
      title = {Histoire évolutive du campagnol roussâtre (Myodes (Clethrionomys) glareolus) en Eurasie},
      school = {Université de Liège},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {170 p.},
      url = {http://bictel.ulg.ac.be/ETD-db/collection/available/ULgetd-03072008-173617/unrestricted/Deffontaine_these_ULg.PDF}
    }
    					
    EDEN0123 Dereure, J.; Vanwambeke, S.O.; Malé, P.; Martinez, S.; Pratlong, F.; Balard, Y. & Dedet, J.-P. The potential effects of global warming on changes in canine leishmaniasis in a focus outside the classical area of the disease in southern France 2009 Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
    Vol. 9 , pp. 687-694  
    article
    Abstract: In 1994, an eco-epidemiologic study was carried out in the mid-Ariège valley (French Pyrenees) where autochthonous cases of canine leishmaniasis had been previously reported. Serologic samples were collected from 336 dogs in two groups of villages. The seroprevalences were 11.67% in the valley villages and only 1.43 % in the foothill villages. Five lymph node biopsies were taken from serologically positive dogs, and resultant isolates were identified as Leishmania infantum zymodeme MON-1. Phlebotomine sandflies were collected in five locations by CDC light traps. Both of the known French vectors, Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus, were identified. Bioclimatic and floristic studies showed that this area is an enclave of the supra-Mediterranean climatic zone, containing a typically xerothermophilic Mediterranean flora. The Pyrenees Mountains are usually considered to be outside of the endemic range of leishmaniasis in southern France, and so our demonstration of a microfocus of canine leishmaniasis in the northern foothills is noteworthy. A second serologic survey carried out in 2007 (216 dogs) showed an inversion of the seropositive rates between the two groups of villages compared with those of 1994: only 2.72% in the valley villages and 11.32% in the foothills villages. The decrease of seroprevalence in the first area (valley villages) can be related to a considerable use of deltamethrin collars during the transmission season. The increase of seroprevalence of the foothill villages could be related to climatic conditions, since there was an increase of about 1 degrees C in the mean annual temperature.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0123,
      author = {Jacques Dereure and Sophie O Vanwambeke and Pierre Malé and Susana Martinez and Francine Pratlong and Yves Balard and Jean-Pierre Dedet},
      title = {The potential effects of global warming on changes in canine leishmaniasis in a focus outside the classical area of the disease in southern France},
      journal = {Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {9},
      pages = {687--694},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2008.0126}
    }
    					
    EDEN0071 Deter, J. Ecologie de la transmission de parasites (virus, nématodes) au sein d'une communauté de rongeurs cycliques. Conséquences pour la santé humaine 2007 , pp. 31 p. School: Université des Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc   phdthesis zoonosis – emerging diseases – hantavirus – cowpox virus – trichuris – demographic cycle – regulation – population genetics – immunogenetics
    Abstract: Several rodent species exhibit cyclic variations of their population densities. These demographic cycles, by increasing contacts between humans and animals, can influence the emergence of zoonoses. This thesis takes part in conservation medicine. This approach aims to study human health by considering also animal health and ecosystem dynamics. In this context, I studied a community of parasites found in a community of cyclic rodents to identify the reservoirs of zoonosis agents and the parasites, which may have a role in rodent demographic cycles. I focused on a rodent community including the fossorial water voles, the common voles, the bank voles, the yellow necked mice and the wood mice in Franche-Comté (East of France). The results and the epizootiologic surveys presented here bring insights into the biotic and abiotic risks associated with emergence of zoonoses.
    Three zoonosis agents were detected: two hantaviruses (Puumala virus and Tula virus) and Cowpox virus. Host dispersal and social behaviour are important for the transmission of the specific hantaviruses and of the non specific Cowpox virus. These viruses are principally detected in forest area. Rodents from forested areas present a different parasite community from rodents found in meadows. Infestations with helminths are more frequent in meadows than in forest. An immunogenetic study revealed susceptibility or resistance alleles for viral infections. Helminths and mites could also have a protective or an enhancing role in viral infections. One of these helminths could have a role in its host dynamics. Using experimental work and modelling, I demonstrate the impact of the non specific nematode T. arvicolae on common vole fecundity and its regulator role for arvicoline populations.
    This thesis provides essential knowledge to evaluate the importance of biodiversity and community ecology in the management of human zoonosis risk factors.
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{EDEN0071,
      author = {Deter, J.},
      title = {Ecologie de la transmission de parasites (virus, nématodes) au sein d'une communauté de rongeurs cycliques. Conséquences pour la santé humaine},
      school = {Université des Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {31 p.},
      url = {http://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/26/48/68/PDF/these-Julie-DETER.pdf}
    }
    					
    EDEN0044 Deter, J.; Bryja, J.; Chaval, Y.; Galan, M.; Henttonen, H.; Laakkonen, J.; Voutilainen, L.; Vapalahti, O.; Vaheri, A.; Salvador, A.R..; Morand, S.; Cosson, J.-F.. & Charbonnel, N. Association between the DQA MHC class II gene and Puumala virus infection in Myodes glareolus, the bank vole. 2008 Infection, Genetics and Evolution
    Vol. 8 , pp. 450-458  
    article
    Abstract: Puumala virus (PUUV) is a hantavirus specifically harboured by the bank vole, Myodes (earlier Clethrionomys) glareolus. It causes a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans, called Nephropathia epidemica (NE). The clinical severity of NE is variable among patients and depends on their major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genetic background. In this study we investigated the potential role of class II MHC gene polymorphism in the susceptibility/resistance to PUUV in the wild reservoir M. glareolus. We performed an association study between the exon 2 of the DQA gene and PUUV antibodies considering a natural population of bank voles. Because immune gene polymorphism is likely to be driven by multiple parasites in the wild, we also screened bank voles for other potential viral and parasitic infections. We used multivariate analyses to explore DQA polymorphism/PUUV associations while considering the potential antagonist and/or synergistic effects of the whole parasite community. Our study suggests links between class II MHC characteristics and viral infections including PUUV and Cowpox virus. Several alleles are likely to be involved in the susceptibility or in the resistance of bank voles to these infections. Alternatively, heterozygosity does not seem to be associated with PUUV or any other parasite infections. This result thus provides no evidence in favour of the hypothesis of selection through overdominance. Finally this multivariate approach reveals a strong antagonism between ectoparasitic mites and PUUV, suggesting direct or indirect immunogenetic links between infections by these parasites. Other datasets are now required to confirm these results and to test whether the associations vary in space and/or time.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0044,
      author = {Deter, J. and Bryja, J. and Chaval, Y. and Galan, M. and Henttonen, H. and Laakkonen, J. and Voutilainen, L. and Vapalahti, O. and Vaheri, A. and Salvador, A.R. and Morand, S. and Cosson, J.-F. and Charbonnel, N.},
      title = {Association between the DQA MHC class II gene and Puumala virus infection in Myodes glareolus, the bank vole.},
      journal = {Infection, Genetics and Evolution},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {8},
      pages = {450-458},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2007.07.003}
    }
    					
    EDEN0069 Deter, J.; Chaval, Y.; Galan, M.; Gauffre, B.; Morand, S.; Henttonen, H.; Laakkonen, J.; Voutilainen, L.; Charbonnel, N. & Cosson, J.-F. Kinship, dispersal and Hantavirus transmission in bank and common voles 2008 Archives of Virology
    Vol. 153 (3) , pp. 435-444  
    article animals; arvicolinae; disease reservoirs; europe; hantavirus; hantavirus infections; rodent diseases; zoonoses
    Abstract: Hantaviruses are among the main emerging infectious agents in Europe. Their mode of transmission in natura is still not well known. In particular, social features and behaviours could be crucial for understanding the persistence and the spread of hantaviruses in rodent populations. Here, we investigated the importance of kinclustering and dispersal in hantavirus transmission by combining a fine-scale spatiotemporal survey (4 km2) and a population genetics approach. Two specific host-hantavirus systems were identified and monitored: the bank vole Myodes, earlier Clethrionomys glareolus--Puumala virus and the common vole Microtus arvalis--Tula virus. Sex, age and landscape characteristics significantly influenced the spatial distribution of infections in voles. The absence of temporal stability in the spatial distributions of viruses suggested that dispersal is likely to play a role in virus propagation. Analysing vole kinship from microsatellite markers, we found that infected voles were more closely related to each other than non-infected ones. Winter kin-clustering, shared colonies within matrilineages or delayed dispersal could explain this pattern. These two last results hold, whatever the host-hantavirus system considered. This supports the roles of relatedness and dispersal as general features for hantavirus transmission.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0069,
      author = {J. Deter and Y. Chaval and M. Galan and B. Gauffre and S. Morand and H. Henttonen and J. Laakkonen and L. Voutilainen and N. Charbonnel and J-F. Cosson},
      title = {Kinship, dispersal and Hantavirus transmission in bank and common voles},
      journal = {Archives of Virology},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {153},
      number = {3},
      pages = {435--444},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-007-0005-6}
    }
    					
    EDEN0118 Di Luca, M.; Boccolini, D.; Severini, F.; Toma, L.; Barbieri, F.M.; Massa, A. & Romi, R. A 2-year entomological study of potential malaria vectors in Central Italy 2009 Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
    Vol. 9 (0) , pp. 703-711  
    article
    Abstract: Abstract Europe was officially declared free from malaria in 1975; nevertheless, this disease remains a potential problem related to the presence of former vectors, belonging to the Anopheles maculipennis complex. Autochthonous-introduced malaria cases, recently reported in European countries, together with the predicted climatic and environmental changes, have increased the concern of health authorities over the possible resurgence of this disease in the Mediterranean Basin. In Italy, to study the distribution and bionomics of indigenous anopheline populations and to assess environmental parameters that could influence their dynamics, an entomological study was carried out in 2005–2006 in an at-risk study area. This model area is represented by the geographical region named the Maremma, a Tyrrhenian costal plain in Central Italy, where malaria was hyperendemic up to the 1950s. Fortnightly, entomological surveys (April–October) were carried out in four selected sites with different ecological features. Morphological and molecular characterization, blood meal identification, and parity rate assessment of the anophelines were performed. In total, 8274 mosquitoes were collected, 7691 of which were anophelines. Six Anopheles species were recorded, the most abundant of which were Anopheles labranchiae and An. maculipennis s.s. An. labranchiae is predominant in the coastal plain, where it is present in scattered foci. However, this species exhibits a wider than expected range: in fact it has been recorded, for the first time, inland where An. maculipennis s.s. is the most abundant species. Both species fed on a wide range of animal hosts, also showing a marked aggressiveness on humans, when available. Our findings demonstrated the high receptivity of the Maremma area, where the former malaria vector, An. labranchiae, occurs at different densities related to the kind of environment, climatic parameters, and anthropic activities.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0118,
      author = {Di Luca, Marco and Boccolini, Daniela and Severini, Francesco and Toma, Luciano and Barbieri, Francesca Mancini and Massa, Antonio and Romi, Roberto},
      title = {A 2-year entomological study of potential malaria vectors in Central Italy},
      journal = {Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {9},
      number = {0},
      pages = {703--711},
      note = {PMID: 19485768},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2008.0129}
    }
    					
    EDEN0187 Durand, B.; Balança, G.; Baldet, T. & Chevalier, V. A metapopulation model to simulate West Nile virus circulation in Western Africa, Southern Europe and the Mediterranean basin. 2010 Veterinary Research
    Vol. 41 (3) , pp. 32  
    article
    Abstract: In Europe, virological and epidemiological data collected in wild birds and horses suggest that a recurrent circulation of West Nile virus (WNV) could exist in some areas. Whether this circulation is permanent (due to overwintering mechanisms) or not remains unknown. The current conception of WNV epidemiology suggests that it is not: this conception combines an enzootic WNV circulation in tropical Africa with seasonal introductions of the virus in Europe by migratory birds. The objectives of this work were to (i) model this conception of WNV global circulation; and (ii) evaluate whether the model could reproduce data and patterns observed in Europe and Africa in vectors, horses, and birds. The model was calibrated using published seroprevalence data obtained from African (Senegal) and European (Spain) wild birds, and validated using independent, published data: seroprevalence rates in migratory and resident wild birds, minimal infection rates in vectors, as well as seroprevalence and incidence rates in horses. According to this model, overwintering mechanisms are not needed to reproduce the observed data. However, the existence of such mechanisms cannot be ruled out.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0187,
      author = {Benoit Durand and Gilles Balança and Thierry Baldet and Véronique Chevalier},
      title = {A metapopulation model to simulate West Nile virus circulation in Western Africa, Southern Europe and the Mediterranean basin.},
      journal = {Veterinary Research},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {41},
      number = {3},
      pages = {32},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/vetres/2010004}
    }
    					
    EDEN0024 Faraj, C.; Adlaoui, E.; Brengues, C.; Fontenille, D. & Lyagoubi, M. Résistance d'Anopheles labranchiae au DDT au Maroc : identification des mécanismes et choix d'un insecticide de remplacement 2008 La Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée orientale
    Vol. 14 (4) , pp. 776-783  
    article
    Abstract: A study of Anopheles labranchiae resistance in Morocco was conducted in the provinces of Kénitra, Khouribga, Larache, Khémisset and Salé during 2005. An. labranchiae was susceptible to propoxur, fenitrothion and permethrin and resistant to varying degrees to DDT. Genetically there was no change to the target site common to DDT and pyrethroids, the voltage gated sodium channel. The resistance seemed to be due to detoxi?cation mechanisms speci?c to DDT. In principle, there should be no obstacle to the substitution of DDT by pyrethroids in Morocco. Resistance can then be detected and supervised by more reliable molecular tools in the Laboratory of Medical Entomology of the National Institute of Hygiene.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0024,
      author = {Faraj, C. and Adlaoui, E. and Brengues, C. and Fontenille, D. and Lyagoubi, M.},
      title = {Résistance d'Anopheles labranchiae au DDT au Maroc : identification des mécanismes et choix d'un insecticide de remplacement},
      journal = {La Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée orientale},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {14},
      number = {4},
      pages = {776--783}
    }
    					
    EDEN0052 Faraj, C.; Adlaoui, E.; Ouahabi, S.; Lakraa, E.; Elkohli, M. & Aouad, R.E. Extension vers le nord du Maroc de l'aire de distribution de Anopheles (Cellia) d'thali Patton, 1905. 2008 Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
    Vol. 101 (1) , pp. 62-64  
    article
    Abstract: Anopheles (cellia) d'thali is generally classified as a mosquito of arid areas in the South and East Morocco. The northernmost station of this species at present in Morocco is the Moulouya valley. However we found An. d'thali during entomological investigations in the north of the country in the subhumid area of Chefchaouen. In Morocco, An. d'thali is therefore no longer a strictly desert species.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0052,
      author = {C. Faraj and E. Adlaoui and S. Ouahabi and E. Lakraa and M. Elkohli and R. El Aouad},
      title = {Extension vers le nord du Maroc de l'aire de distribution de Anopheles (Cellia) d'thali Patton, 1905.},
      journal = {Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {101},
      number = {1},
      pages = {62--64}
    }
    					
    EDEN0114 Faraj, C.; Adlaoui, E.; Ouahabi, S.; Rhajaoui, M.; Fontenille, D. & Lyagoubi, M. Entomological investigations in the region of the last malaria focus in Morocco 2008 Acta Tropica
    Vol. 109 , pp. 70-73  
    article malaria, resumption risk, anopheles labranchiae, anopheles sergenti, chefchaouen, morocco
    Abstract: To evaluate the risk of malaria transmission resumption in Morocco, we have studied the current level of receptivity of the region of the last malaria focus in the country. Anopheles (Anopheles) maculipennis labranchiae and Anopheles (Cellia) sergentii, the major vectors of malaria in Morocco, are still presents but their anthropothic index was low and no parasite positive samples were detected. An. labranchiae was very rare; only 34 females were caught over all the study period. The human biting rate was nil and none of its blood meal was human. An. sergenti was more abundant but its low human aggressiveness and its zoophilic behaviour would not attribute to this species an important vectorial capacity. Thus, the receptivity of Chefchaouen province, the region of the the last malaria focus in Morocco, under the current vector control measures undertaken by Public Health services, is low and despite the likely presence of Plasmodium vivax gametocyte carriers, the malariogenic potential appears to be low and the risk of malaria resumption is, at this time, unimportant.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0114,
      author = {Faraj, C. and Adlaoui, E. and Ouahabi, S. and Rhajaoui, M. and Fontenille, D. and Lyagoubi, M.},
      title = {Entomological investigations in the region of the last malaria focus in Morocco},
      journal = {Acta Tropica},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {109},
      pages = {70--73},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2008.09.021}
    }
    					
    EDEN0103 Faraj, C.; Ouahabi, S.; Adlaoui, E.; Boccolini, D.; Romi, R. & El Aouad, R. Risque de réémergence du paludisme au Maroc. Etude de la capacité vectorielle d'Anopheles labranchiae dans une zone rizicole au Nord du pays 2008 Parasite
    Vol. 15 , pp. 605-610  
    article anopheles maculipennis, anopheles labranchiae, vectorial capacity, receptivity, malaria, risk, morocco
    Abstract: To assess the malaria reintroduction risk in Morocco, we analyzed the malariogenic potential of a rice cultivation area in the north of the country. Our results showed that the receptivity of this area is very high during all the period of the rice cultivation, from May to October. the vectorial capacity of An. labranchiae, malaria vector in Morocco, is considerably high during the summer which corresponds to the rice cultivation period. The risk of autochthonous malaria resumption is important because of the possible presence of gametocytes carriers in the last malaria focus which is bordering the study area. The risk of a tropical malaria introduction is unimportant seen the low vulnerability of the area and the uncertain competence of its vectors considered. However, this risk must be considered with a more attention.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0103,
      author = {Faraj, C. and Ouahabi, S. and Adlaoui, E. and Boccolini, D. and Romi, R. and El Aouad, R.},
      title = {Risque de réémergence du paludisme au Maroc. Etude de la capacité vectorielle d'Anopheles labranchiae dans une zone rizicole au Nord du pays},
      journal = {Parasite},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {15},
      pages = {605--610}
    }
    					
    EDEN0129 Fichet-Calvet, E. & Rogers, D.J. Risk maps of Lassa fever in West Africa 2009 PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
    Vol. 3 (3) , pp. e388  
    article
    Abstract: Previous studies on the eco-epidemiology of Lassa fever in Guinea, West Africa, have shown that the reservoir is two to three times more infected by Lassa virus in the rainy season than in the dry season. None of the intrinsic variables of the murine population, such as abundance or reproduction, was able to explain this seasonal variation in prevalence. We therefore here investigate the importance of extrinsic environmental variables, partly influenced by the idea that in the case of nephropathia epidemica in Europe contamination of the environment, and therefore survival of the pathogen outside the host, appears to be an important factor in this disease's epidemiology. We therefore made an extensive review of the literature, gathering information about the geographical location of sites where Lassa fever has been certainly identified. Environmental data for these sites (rainfall, temperature, vegetation and altitude) were gathered from a variety of sources, both satellites and ground-based meteorological stations. Several statistical treatments were applied to produce Lassa "risk maps". These maps all indicate a strong influence of rainfall, and a lesser influence of temperature in defining high risk areas. The area of greatest risk is located between Guinea and Cameroon.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0129,
      author = {Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth AND Rogers, David John},
      title = {Risk maps of Lassa fever in West Africa},
      journal = {PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases},
      publisher = {Public Library of Science},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {3},
      number = {3},
      pages = {e388},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000388}
    }
    					
    EDEN0157 Figuerola, J.; Baouab, R.E.; Soriguer, R.; Fassi-Fihri, O.; Llorente, F. & Jímenez-Clavero, M.A. West Nile virus antibodies in wild birds, Morocco, 2008 2009 Emerging Infectious Diseases
    Vol. 15 (10) , pp. 1651-1653  
    article
    Abstract: To determine circulation of West Nile virus (WNV) during nonepidemic times, we serosurveyed wild birds of Morocco in 2008. We found antibodies against WNV in 12 (3.5%) birds, against Usutu virus in 1 (0.3%), and against both in 2 (0.6%). High WNV prevalence among juvenile birds suggests local virus circulation among resident birds.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0157,
      author = {Jordi Figuerola and Riad E. Baouab and Ramon Soriguer and Ouafaa Fassi-Fihri and Francisco Llorente and Miguel Angel Jímenez-Clavero},
      title = {West Nile virus antibodies in wild birds, Morocco, 2008},
      journal = {Emerging Infectious Diseases},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {15},
      number = {10},
      pages = {1651--1653},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090340}
    }
    					
    EDEN0095 Figuerola, J.; Jiménez-Clavero, M.A.; López, G.; Rubio, C.; Soriguer, R.; Gómez-Tejedor, C. & Tenorio, A. Size matters: West Nile virus neutralizing antibodies in resident and migratory birds in Spain 2008 Veterinary Microbiology
    Vol. 132 (1-2) , pp. 39-46  
    article
    Abstract: The rapid range expansion of West Nile Virus has raised interest in understanding the population dynamics and dispersal patterns of emerging infectious diseases by wildlife. We analyzed different ecological and evolutionary factors related to West Nile Virus neutralizing antibody prevalence in 72 bird species sampled in southern Spain. Prevalence of antibodies reached its maximum during the autumn and winter in comparison to summer months. Prevalence of antibodies was directly related to body mass and migratory behaviour. The greater prevalence of antibodies observed in summer migrants can be explained, among other factors, by the diversity of localities involved in their life cycles or the geographic areas visited during their migrations. Greater prevalence in larger species was explained by their longevity because the relationship was already significant when analyzing only first year birds, and probably also involved a high attraction to vectors by larger hosts. Coloniality and winter gregarism were unrelated to the prevalence of antibodies against this highly host generalist pathogen. Evolutionary relationships between species were unrelated to differences in the prevalence of antibodies. Our results suggest larger species as good candidates for easy, faster and cheaper monitoring of local, seasonal and annual changes in WN virus serology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0095,
      author = {Jordi Figuerola and Miguel Angel Jiménez-Clavero and Guillermo López and Consuelo Rubio and Ramón Soriguer and Concha Gómez-Tejedor and Antonio Tenorio},
      title = {Size matters: West Nile virus neutralizing antibodies in resident and migratory birds in Spain},
      journal = {Veterinary Microbiology},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {132},
      number = {1-2},
      pages = {39--46},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2008.04.023}
    }
    					
    EDEN0045 Figuerola, J.; Soriguer, R.; Rojo, G.; Tejedor, C. & Jimenez-Clavero, M. Seroconversion in wild birds and local circulation of West Nile virus, Spain 2007 Emerging Infectious Diseases
    Vol. 13 (12) , pp. 1915-1917  
    article animals; anseriformes; antibodies, viral; bird diseases; seroepidemiologic studies; spain; time factors; west nile fever; west nile virus
    Abstract: A serosurvey for neutralizing antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV) in common coots (Fulica atra) was conducted in Doñana, Spain. Antibody prevalence was highest in 2003, intermediate in 2004, and lowest in 2005. Some birds seroreverted <1 year after first capture. Seroconversion of birds suggests local circulation of the virus.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0045,
      author = {Figuerola, J. and Soriguer, R. and Rojo, G. and Tejedor, C.G. and Jimenez-Clavero, M.A.},
      title = {Seroconversion in wild birds and local circulation of West Nile virus, Spain},
      journal = {Emerging Infectious Diseases},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {13},
      number = {12},
      pages = {1915--1917}
    }
    					
    EDEN0161 Gern, L.; Douet, Vé.; López, Z.; Rais, O. & Cadenas, F.M. Diversity of Borrelia genospecies in Ixodes ricinus ticks in a Lyme borreliosis endemic area in Switzerland identified by using new probes for reverse line blotting 2010 Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
    Vol. 1 (1) , pp. 23-29  
    article borrelia burgdorferi, ixodes ricinus, reverse line blotting, 5s-23s intergenic spacer, relapsing fever-like spirochaetes
    Abstract: In Europe, 7 Borrelia species belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex have been reported in Ixodes ricinus ticks. In addition, another Borrelia, related to the relapsing fever spirochaetes, has also been described. In the present study, we designed probes for reverse line blotting allowing detection and identification of all these Borrelia species after amplification of the variable spacer region between the 23S and 5S ribosomal genes. These new probes allowed us investigate the diversity of Borrelia in 915 I. ricinus collected on the south-facing slope of Chaumont (Switzerland). Among the 159 infected ticks, 7 Borrelia species were identified, and B. spielmanii and relapsing fever-like (RFL) spirochaetes were identified in this area for the first time. B. valaisiana and B. spielmanii were significantly less present in male than in female or nymphal ticks. Mixed infection with RFL spirochaetes and Lyme borreliosis spirochaetes were detected in 4 ticks. In addition, the set of probes could identify the recently described species, B. bavariensis.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0161,
      author = {Gern, Lise and Douet, Véronique and López, Zully and Rais, Olivier and Cadenas, Francisca Morán},
      title = {Diversity of Borrelia genospecies in Ixodes ricinus ticks in a Lyme borreliosis endemic area in Switzerland identified by using new probes for reverse line blotting},
      journal = {Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {1},
      number = {1},
      pages = {23--29},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2009.11.001}
    }
    					
    EDEN0057 Golovljova, I.; Katargina, O.; Geller, J.; Tallo, T.; Mittzenkov, V.; Vene, S.; Nemirov, K.; Kutsenko, A.; Kilosanidze, G.; Vasilenko, V.; Plyusnin, A. & Lundkvist, . Unique signature amino acid substitution in Baltic tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) strains within the Siberian TBEV subtype. 2008 International Journal of Medical Microbiology
    Vol. 298 (Supplement 1) , pp. 108-120  
    article
    Abstract: Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is an arthropod-borne virus, which is transmitted to vertebrates by the bite of infected ticks. TBEV plays an important role in human morbidity in Europe and in Estonia in particular. All three known TBEV subtypes, Western (W-TBEV), Far-Eastern (FE-TBEV), and Siberian (S-TBEV), co-circulate in Estonia. In the present study, we collected ticks in the eastern part of the country where one of the TBEV vectors, Ixodes persulcatus, is prevalent. In total, 8 TBEV strains were isolated and characterized by partial sequencing of the surface E glycoprotein gene. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all 8 strains belonged to the S-TBEV subtype and clustered geographically with Baltic TBEV strains from Estonia, Latvia, and Finland. Analysis of amino acid sequences revealed a new signature amino acid, Asn, at position 175 for Baltic strains from Estonia, Latvia, Finland, and the European part of Russia, and Ala at position 313 for Siberian strains from Novosibirsk, Tomsk, and Irkutsk within the S-TBEV subtype. According to these findings, discrimination of Baltic and Siberian lineages within the S-TBEV subtype is possible. These data support geographic clustering of Baltic TBEV strains within the S-TBEV subtype in contrast to the previous postulation that TBEV strains could not be distinguished according to place and time of isolation. Both signature amino acids, 175 and 313, are located close to each other at one side of the E protein dimer molecule. Protein structure modeling showed that at position 175, the Baltic strains of S-TBEV had lost one hydrogen bond with Asp181, thus making the nearby 177-179 loop more flexible at the molecule surface. At position 313, the Siberian strains of S-TBEV had a substitution of non-polar Thr to polar Ala. Geometrical analysis of the molecular surface around amino acid 313 hinted at the presence of a cleft between this residue and a loop formed by residues 308-311, which has been suggested as a putative flavivirus receptor-binding site. This substitution may influence the binding properties of the cleft formed by signature amino acid 313 and the receptor-binding loop.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0057,
      author = {Golovljova, I. and Katargina, O. and Geller, J. and Tallo, T. and Mittzenkov, V. and Vene, S. and Nemirov, K. and Kutsenko, A. and Kilosanidze, G. and Vasilenko, V. and Plyusnin, A. and Lundkvist, Å.},
      title = {Unique signature amino acid substitution in Baltic tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) strains within the Siberian TBEV subtype.},
      journal = {International Journal of Medical Microbiology},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {298},
      number = {Supplement 1},
      pages = {108--120},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmm.2007.12.004}
    }
    					
    EDEN0186 Gálvez, R.; Descalzo, M.; Miró, G.; Jiménez, M.; Martín, O.; Dos Santos-Brandao, F.; Guerrero, I.; Cubero, E. & Molina, R. Seasonal trends and spatial relations between environmental / meteorological factors and leishmaniosis sand fly vector abundances in Central Spain 2010 Acta Tropica
    Vol. In Press, Corrected Proof , pp. -  
    article canine leishmaniosis, sand fly vector, phlebotomus perniciosus, phlebotomus ariasi, environmental and meteorological factors
    Abstract: This paper reports on an entomological survey performed over the period 2006-2008 in Central Spain (mainly in the Madrid province) where canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is endemic. The study area was selected on the grounds of its wide altitude range, which determines both broad climate and vegetation ranges that could affect sand fly distributions. This area was surveyed from NE to SW across its mountain range (Sistema Central) and plateau area using sticky traps mainly on embankments. In 2006 and 2007, 123 sites were sampled (9557 sand flies captured) to establish possible relations between environmental or meteorological factors and vector densities (Phlebotomus perniciosus and Phlebotomus ariasi). The factors correlated with higher vector densities were: a sample site between villages or at the edge of a village, the lack of a paved road, a rural habitat, an east or south-facing wall or wall sheltered from the wind, the presence of livestock or birds, a holm-oak wood vegetation, a lower summer mean temperature and lower annual mean precipitation. This study was followed by a seasonal survey conducted at 16 selected sites (14,353 sand flies) sampled them monthly from May to November 2008. P. perniciosus showed a diphasic seasonal trend with two abundance peaks in July and September whereas P. ariasi showed a monophasic trend with one peak in August. Comparing with data from studies performed in 1991 in the same area, vector densities are significantly higher. A possible explanation for this is that the vectors (mainly P. ariasi) are moving towards higher altitudes perhaps because of global change. This increasing trend could have an impact on CanL and its geographical distribution.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0186,
      author = {Gálvez, R. and Descalzo, M.A. and Miró, G. and Jiménez, M.I. and Martín, O. and Dos Santos-Brandao, F. and Guerrero, I. and Cubero, E. and Molina, R.},
      title = {Seasonal trends and spatial relations between environmental / meteorological factors and leishmaniosis sand fly vector abundances in Central Spain},
      journal = {Acta Tropica},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {In Press, Corrected Proof},
      pages = { - },
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2010.02.009}
    }
    					
    EDEN0177 Gálvez, R.; Miró, G.; Descalzo, M.; Nieto, J.; Dado, D.; Martín, O.; Cubero, E. & Molina, R. Emerging trends in the seroprevalence of canine leishmaniosis in the Madrid region (central Spain) 2010 Veterinary Parasitology
    Vol. 169 (3-4) , pp. 327 - 334  
    article canine leishmaniosis, seroprevalence, risk factors, madrid, immunofluorescent antibody test
    Abstract: This report describes a cross-sectional serological survey of the epidemiology of canine leishmaniosis (CanL) performed in 2006 and 2007 in the Madrid region (central Spain) where the disease is endemic. The work presented here is one of the several studies conducted in different Spanish regions under the Integrated Project of the European Commission entitled Emerging Diseases in a changing European eNvironment (EDEN). The aim of this project is to identify and catalogue European ecosystems and environmental conditions that determine the spatial and temporal distributions and dynamics of several pathogenic agents including Leishmania infantum (EDEN-LEI). The study area (Madrid Autonomous Region) was selected on the grounds of its wide altitude range. This area was surveyed from NE to SW across its mountain range (Sistema Central) and plateau area. One thousand and seventy-six dogs from 32 villages were examined for clinical signs of CanL, and serum samples were obtained to determine several haematological and biochemical variables. Leishmaniosis-specific antibodies were identified using an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). 87 of the 1076 dogs were seropositive for the protozoan (IFAT: cut-off >= 1/80) indicating a seroprevalence of 8.1% (0-16.1% depending on the village). On the basis of a physical examination and the biochemical/haematological status of each dog, 32 of the 87 infected dogs were described as clinically healthy (37%). Seroprevalence showed a peak in young dogs (1-2 years) and a second larger peak among the older dogs (7-8 years). Factors correlated with a higher infection risk were age (OR = 1.15 [95% CI: 1.07-1.22]), weight (OR = 1.10 [95% CI: 1.04-1.16]), and living outdoors as opposed to in a home (OR = 3.38 [95% CI: 1.42-8.05]). According to data from studies performed in 1992 in the same area, the seroprevalence of CanL has increased 1.54-fold [95% CI: 1.04-2.29]. Given that this increasing trend cannot be attributed to differences in the sociodemographic characteristics of the dog populations, it is proposed that environmental changes could have had an impact on vector and reservoir densities and their geographical distributions. Further studies designed to explain this trend should attempt to correlate sand fly densities and CanL seroprevalences with climate, land use and human changes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0177,
      author = {R. Gálvez and G. Miró and M.A. Descalzo and J. Nieto and D. Dado and O. Martín and E. Cubero and R. Molina},
      title = {Emerging trends in the seroprevalence of canine leishmaniosis in the Madrid region (central Spain)},
      journal = {Veterinary Parasitology},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {169},
      number = {3-4},
      pages = {327 - 334},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2009.11.025}
    }
    					
    EDEN0104 Halouzka, J.; Juricová, Z.; Janková, J. & Hubálek, Z. Serologic survey of wild boars for mosquito-borne viruses in South Moravia (Czech Republic) 2008 Veterinarni Medicina
    Vol. 53 (5) , pp. 266-271  
    article antibodies; west nile virus; tahyna virus; batai virus; sindbis virus; czechland; swine
    Abstract: A serosurvey for mosquito-borne viruses was carried out in 93 wild boars (Sus scrofa), using a plaque-reduction neutralization microtest with Vero cells. The boars were sampled on 24 hunting grounds of the Breclav district (South Moravia) from 2000 to 2002. Specific antibodies to Flavivirus West Nile (WNV) were detected in six (6.5%) animals, and only in Lanzhot and Kostice, i.e., in the area of the “Soutok” game reserve where WNV was previously isolated from mosquitoes in South Moravia. However, the antibody titres were comparatively low (1:20–1:40). A substantially higher seroprevalence was revealed against Orthobunyavirus Tahyna (TAHV): 18 (19.4%) wild boars were positive, and the titres ranged from 1:20 up to 1:640. Only one animal (1.1%) seroreacted with Orthobunyavirus Batai (Calovo), at a low titre of 1:20. The sera were additionally examined by
    a haemagglutination-inhibition test against Alphavirus Sindbis: two boars (2.2%) revealed antibodies, the titres were 1:20 and 1:80. The serosurvey indicates that the activity of mosquito-borne viruses in South Moravia has decreased compared with the past decades, but that surveillance for these viruses is still necessary.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0104,
      author = {J. Halouzka and Z. Juricová and J. Janková and Z. Hubálek},
      title = {Serologic survey of wild boars for mosquito-borne viruses in South Moravia (Czech Republic)},
      journal = {Veterinarni Medicina},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {53},
      number = {5},
      pages = {266--271}
    }
    					
    EDEN0120 Hammadi, D.; Boubidi, S.; Chaib, S.; Saber, A.; Khechache, Y.; Gasmi, M. & Harrat, Z. Le paludisme au Sahara algérien 2009 Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
    Vol. 102 (3) , pp. 185-192  
    article plasmodium falciparum, plasmodium vivax, anopheles gambiae, malaria, anopheles, oasis, sahara, algeria, maghreb, northen africa
    Abstract: Thanks to the malaria eradication campaign launched in Algeria in 1968, the number of malaria cases fell down significantly from 95,424 cases in 1960 to 30 cases in 1978. At that time, the northern part of the country was declared free of Plasmodium falciparum. Only
    few cases belonging to P. vivax persisted in residual foci in the middle part of the country. In the beginning of the eighties, the south of the country was marked by an increase of imported malaria cases. The resurgence of the disease in the oases coincided with the opening of the Trans-Saharan road and the booming trade with the neighbouring southern countries. Several authors insisted on the risk of introduction of malaria or its exotic potential vectors in Algeria via this new road. Now, the totality of malaria autochthonous cases in Algeria are located in the south of the country where 300 cases were declared during the period (1980-2007). The recent outbreak recorded in 2007 at the borders with Mali and the introduction of Anopheles gambiae into the Algerian territory, show the vulnerability of this area to malaria which is probably emphasized by the local environmental changes. The authors assess the evolution of malaria in the Sahara region and draw up the distribution of the anopheles in this area.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0120,
      author = {D. Hammadi and S.C. Boubidi and S.E. Chaib and A. Saber and Y. Khechache and M. Gasmi and Z. Harrat},
      title = {Le paludisme au Sahara algérien},
      journal = {Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {102},
      number = {3},
      pages = {185--192},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3185/pathexo3356}
    }
    					
    EDEN0084 Hardestam, J.; Karlsson, M.; Falk, K.I.; Olsson, G.; Klingström, J. & Lundkvist, . Puumala hantavirus excretion kinetics in bank voles (Myodes glareolus) 2008 Emerging Infectious Diseases
    Vol. 14 (8) , pp. 1209-1215  
    article
    Abstract: Puumala hantavirus is present in bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and is believed to be spread mainly by contaminated excretions. In this study, we subcutaneously inoculated 10 bank voles with Puumala virus and sampled excretions until day 133 postinfection. Levels of shed viral RNA peaked within 11-28, 14-21, and 11-28 days postinfection for saliva, urine, and feces, respectively. The latest detection of viral RNA was 84, 44, and 44 days postinfection in saliva, urine, and feces, respectively. In contrast, blood of 5 of 6 animals contained viral RNA at day 133 postinfection, suggesting that bank voles secrete virus only during a limited time of the infection. Intranasal inoculations with bank vole saliva, urine, or feces were all infectious for virus-negative bank voles, indicating that these 3 transmission routes may occur in nature and that rodent saliva might play a role in transmission to humans.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0084,
      author = {Jonas Hardestam and Malin Karlsson and Kerstin I Falk and Gert Olsson and Jonas Klingström and Åke Lundkvist},
      title = {Puumala hantavirus excretion kinetics in bank voles (Myodes glareolus)},
      journal = {Emerging Infectious Diseases},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {14},
      number = {8},
      pages = {1209--1215},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1408.080221}
    }
    					
    EDEN0146 Hardestam, J.; Lundkvist, Å. & Klingström, J. Sensitivity of Andes Hantavirus to antiviral effect of human saliva 2009 Emerging Infectious Diseases
    Vol. 15 (7) , pp. 1140-1143  
    article
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0146,
      author = {Jonas Hardestam and Åke Lundkvist and Jonas Klingström},
      title = {Sensitivity of Andes Hantavirus to antiviral effect of human saliva},
      journal = {Emerging Infectious Diseases},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {15},
      number = {7},
      pages = {1140--1143},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.090097}
    }
    					
    EDEN0082 Hardestam, J.; Petterson, L.; Ahlm, C.; Evander, M.; Lundkvist, . &amp; Klingström, J. Antiviral effect of human saliva against Hantavirus 2008 Journal of Medical Virology
    Vol. 80 (12) , pp. 2122-2126  
    article
    Abstract: Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome are zoonotic diseases caused by rodent borne hantaviruses. Transmission to humans occurs usually by inhalation of aerozolized virus-contaminated rodent excreta. Although human-to-human transmission of Andes hantavirus has been observed, the mode of transmission is currently not known. Saliva from Puumala hantavirus (PUUV)-infected patients was shown recently to contain viral RNA. To test if human saliva interferes with hantavirus replication, the effect of saliva and salivary proteins on hantavirus replication was studied. It was observed that saliva from healthy individuals reduced Hantaan hantavirus (HTNV) infectivity, although not completely. Furthermore, HTNV was resistant against the antiviral capacity of histatin 5, lysozyme, lactoferrin, and SLPI, but was inhibited by mucin. Inoculation of bank voles (Myodes glareolus) with HFRS-patient saliva, positive for PUUV-RNA, did not induce sero-conversion. In conclusion, no evidence of infectious virus in patient saliva was found. However, the in vitro experiments showed that HTNV, the prototype hantavirus, is insensitive to several antiviral salivary proteins, and is partly resistant to the antiviral effect of saliva. It therefore remains to be shown if human saliva might contain infectious virions early during infection, that is, before seroconversion.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0082,
      author = {Jonas Hardestam and Lisa Petterson and Clas Ahlm and Magnus Evander and Åke Lundkvist and Jonas Klingström},
      title = {Antiviral effect of human saliva against Hantavirus},
      journal = {Journal of Medical Virology},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {80},
      number = {12},
      pages = {2122--2126},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.21332}
    }
    					
    EDEN0035 Hardestam, J.; Simon, M.; Hedlund, K.O.; Vaheri, A.; Klingström, J. & Lundkvist, . Ex vivo stability of the rodent-borne Hantaan virus in comparison to that of arthropod-borne members of the Bunyaviridae family 2007 Applied and Environmental Microbiology
    Vol. 73 (8) , pp. 2547-2551  
    article antiviral agents; ethanol; hantaan virus; hemorrhagic fever virus, crimean-congo; microbial viability; microscopy, electron, transmission; phlebovirus; temperature; time factors; virion
    Abstract: The possible effect of virus adaptation to different transmission routes on virus stability in the environment is not well known. In this study we have compared the stabilities of three viruses within the Bunyaviridae family: the rodent-borne Hantavirus Hantaan virus (HTNV), the sand fly-borne Phlebovirus sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV), and the tick-borne Nairovirus Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV). These viruses differ in their transmission routes: SFSV and CCHFV are vector borne, whereas HTNV is spread directly between its hosts, and to humans, via the environment. We studied whether these viruses differed regarding stability when kept outside of the host. Viral survival was analyzed at different time points upon exposure to different temperatures (4 degrees C, 20 degrees C, and 37 degrees C) and drying at 20 degrees C. We observed clearly different stabilities under wet conditions, particularly at 4 degrees C, where infectious SFSV, HTNV, and CCHFV were detectable after 528, 96, and 15 days, respectively. All three viruses were equally sensitive to drying, as shown by drying on aluminum discs. Furthermore, HTNV and SFSV partially survived for 2 min in 30% ethanol, whereas CCHFV did not. Electron microscopy images of HTNV, SSFSV, and CCHFV stored at 37 degrees C until infectivity was lost still showed the occurrence of virions, but with abnormal shapes and densities compared to those of the nonincubated samples. In conclusion, our study points out important differences in ex vivo stability among viruses within the Bunyaviridae family.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0035,
      author = {J. Hardestam and M. Simon and K. O. Hedlund and A. Vaheri and J. Klingström and Å. Lundkvist},
      title = {Ex vivo stability of the rodent-borne Hantaan virus in comparison to that of arthropod-borne members of the Bunyaviridae family},
      journal = {Applied and Environmental Microbiology},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {73},
      number = {8},
      pages = {2547--2551},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02869-06}
    }
    					
    EDEN0175 Hartemink, N. Vector-borne diseases: the basic reproduction number $R_0$ and risk maps 2009 , pp. 168 p. School: Utrecht University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine   phdthesis
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{EDEN0175,
      author = {Nienke Hartemink},
      title = {Vector-borne diseases: the basic reproduction number $R_0$ and risk maps},
      school = {Utrecht University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {168 p.}
    }
    					
    EDEN0025 Hartemink, N.A.; Davis, S.A.; Reiter, P.; Hubálek, Z. & Heesterbeek, J.A. Importance of bird-to-bird transmission for the establishment of West Nile virus 2007 Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
    Vol. 7 (4) , pp. 575-584  
    article
    Abstract: West Nile virus (WNV) is principally considered to be maintained in a mosquito-bird transmission cycle. Under experimental conditions, several other transmission routes have been observed, but the significance of these additional routes in nature is unknown. Here, we derive an expression for the basic reproduction number (R0) for WNV including all putative routes of transmission between birds and mosquitoes to gauge the relative importance of these routes for the establishment of WNV. Parameters were estimated from published experimental results. Sensitivity analysis reveals that R0 is sensitive to transmission between birds via close contact, but not to mosquito-to-mosquito transmission. In seasons or in areas where the mosquito-to-bird ratio is low, bird-to-bird transmission may be crucial in determining whether WNV can establish or not. We explain the use of R0 as a flexible tool to measure the risk of establishment of vector-borne diseases.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0025,
      author = {N. A. Hartemink and S. A. Davis and P. Reiter and Z. Hubálek and J. A.P. Heesterbeek},
      title = {Importance of bird-to-bird transmission for the establishment of West Nile virus},
      journal = {Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {7},
      number = {4},
      pages = {575--584},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2006.0613}
    }
    					
    EDEN0051 Hartemink, N.A.; Randolph, S.E.; Davis, S.A. & Heesterbeek, J.A.P. The basic reproduction number for complex disease systems: defining $R_0$ for tick-borne infections 2008 The American Naturalist
    Vol. 171 (6) , pp. 743-754  
    article
    Abstract: Characterizing the basic reproduction number, [Formula: see text], for many wildlife disease systems can seem a complex problem because several species are involved, because there are different epidemiological reactions to the infectious agent at different life-history stages, or because there are multiple transmission routes. Tick-borne diseases are an important example where all these complexities are brought together as a result of the peculiarities of the tick life cycle and the multiple transmission routes that occur. We show here that one can overcome these complexities by separating the host population into epidemiologically different types of individuals and constructing a matrix of reproduction numbers, the so-called next-generation matrix. Each matrix element is an expected number of infectious individuals of one type produced by a single infectious individual of a second type. The largest eigenvalue of the matrix characterizes the initial exponential growth or decline in numbers of infected individuals. Values below 1 therefore imply that the infection cannot establish. The biological interpretation closely matches that of [Formula: see text] for disease systems with only one type of individual and where infection is directly transmitted. The parameters defining each matrix element have a clear biological meaning. We illustrate the usefulness and power of the approach with a detailed examination of tick-borne diseases, and we use field and experimental data to parameterize the next-generation matrix for Lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis. Sensitivity and elasticity analyses of the matrices, at the element and individual parameter levels, allow direct comparison of the two etiological agents. This provides further support that transmission between cofeeding ticks is critically important for the establishment of tick-borne encephalitis.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0051,
      author = {N. A. Hartemink and S. E. Randolph and S. A. Davis and J. A P Heesterbeek},
      title = {The basic reproduction number for complex disease systems: defining $R_0$ for tick-borne infections},
      journal = {The American Naturalist},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {171},
      number = {6},
      pages = {743--754},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/587530}
    }
    					
    EDEN0098 Hartemink, N.; Purse, B.; Meiswinkel, R.; Brown, H.; de Koeijer, A.; Elbers, A.; Boender, G.-J.; Rogers, D. & Heesterbeek, J. Mapping the basic reproduction number ($R_0$) for vector-borne diseases: A case study on bluetongue virus 2009 Epidemics
    Vol. 1 (3) , pp. 153-161  
    article emerging diseases, infectious diseases, epidemiology, risk maps, climate change
    Abstract: Geographical maps indicating the value of the basic reproduction number, R0, can be used to identify areas of higher risk for an outbreak after an introduction. We develop a methodology to create R0 maps for vector-borne diseases, using bluetongue virus as a case study. This method provides a tool for gauging the extent of environmental effects on disease emergence. The method involves integrating vector-abundance data with statistical approaches to predict abundance from satellite imagery and with the biologically mechanistic modelling that underlies R0. We illustrate the method with three applications for bluetongue virus in the Netherlands: 1) a simple R0 map for the situation in September 2006, 2) species-specific R0 maps based on satellite-data derived predictions, and 3) monthly R0 maps throughout the year. These applications ought to be considered as a proof-of-principle and illustrations of the methods described, rather than as ready-to-use risk maps. Altogether, this is a first step towards an integrative method to predict risk of establishment of diseases based on mathematical modelling combined with a geographic information system that may comprise climatic variables, landscape features, land use, and other relevant factors determining the risk of establishment for bluetongue as well as of other emerging vector-borne diseases.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0098,
      author = {N.A. Hartemink and B.V. Purse and R. Meiswinkel and H.E. Brown and A. de Koeijer and A.R.W. Elbers and G.-J. Boender and D.J. Rogers and J.A.P. Heesterbeek},
      title = {Mapping the basic reproduction number ($R_0$) for vector-borne diseases: A case study on bluetongue virus},
      journal = {Epidemics},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {1},
      number = {3},
      pages = {153--161},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epidem.2009.05.004}
    }
    					
    EDEN0009 Hay, S.I.; Tatem, A.J.; Graham, A.J.; Goetz, S.J. & Rogers, D.J. Global environmental data for mapping infectious disease distribution 2006 Advances in Parasitology
    Vol. 62 , pp. 37-77  
    article
    Abstract: This contribution documents the satellite data archives, data processing methods and temporal Fourier analysis (TFA) techniques used to create the remotely sensed datasets on the DVD distributed with this volume. The aim is to provide a detailed reference guide to the genesis of the data, rather than a standard review. These remotely sensed data cover the entire globe at either 1x1 or 8x8km spatial resolution. We briefly evaluate the relationships between the 1x1 and 8x8km global TFA products to explore their inter-compatibility. The 8x8km TFA surfaces are used in the mapping procedures detailed in the subsequent disease mapping reviews, since the 1x1km products have been validated less widely. Details are also provided on additional, current and planned sensors that should be able to provide continuity with these environmental variable surfaces, as well as other sources of global data that may be used for mapping infectious disease.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0009,
      author = {S. I. Hay and A. J. Tatem and A. J. Graham and S. J. Goetz and D. J. Rogers},
      title = {Global environmental data for mapping infectious disease distribution},
      journal = {Advances in Parasitology},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {62},
      pages = {37--77},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-308X(05)62002-7}
    }
    					
    EDEN0074 Heyman, P. & Vaheri, A. Situation of Hantavirus infections and haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in European countries as of December 2006 2008 Eurosurveillance
    Vol. 13 (7-9) , pp. 1-7  
    article
    Abstract: Hantavirus infections are widely distributed in Europe with the exception of the far north and the Mediterranean regions. The underlying causes of varying epidemiological patterns differ among regions: in western and central Europe epidemics of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) caused by hantavirus infections follow mast years with increasedseed production by oak and beech trees followed by increased rodent reproduction. In the northern regions, hantavirus infections andHFRS epidemics occur in three to four year cycles and are thought to be driven by prey - predator interactions. Hantavirus infections and HFRS seem to be on the increase in Europe, partly because of better diagnostics, partly perhaps due to environmental change. Unfortunately, hantavirus infections are still heavily under-diagnosed in many European countries. Here we report the results of a survey conducted in 2007 amongst the member laboratories of the European Network for diagnostics of Imported Viral Diseases (ENIVD).
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0074,
      author = {Heyman, P. and Vaheri, A.},
      title = {Situation of Hantavirus infections and haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in European countries as of December 2006},
      journal = {Eurosurveillance},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {13},
      number = {7-9},
      pages = {1--7}
    }
    					
    EDEN0013 Hubálek, Z.; Halouzka, J.; Juricová, Z.; Sikutová, S. & Rudolf, I. Effect of forest clearing on the abundance of Ixodes ricinus ticks and the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. 2006 Medical and Veterinary Entomology
    Vol. 20 (2) , pp. 166-172  
    article animals; arachnid vectors; borrelia burgdorferi group; czech republic; female; ixodes; lyme disease; male; population density; prevalence; risk factors; time factors; trees
    Abstract: Questing Ixodes ricinus L. (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks were collected on a forest trail that had been completely cleared of shrubs and ground vegetation in winter 2002 and on a nearby control uncleared forest transect in South Moravia (Czech Republic). Samples were collected each May in 2003, 2004 and 2005. Nymphal ticks were 3.4 times, 1.9 times and 1.2 times less frequent on cleared forest than on uncleared forest trails in the three respective years, whereas adult tick abundance was 27.2 times, 4.0 times and 2.2 times lower, respectively. The ticks were examined for borreliae by dark-field microscopy: prevalence of nymphal ticks infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (12.6% to 20.0 did not differ significantly between the cleared and uncleared trail during the 3 years. In conclusion, the habitat modification appeared to result in a decreased abundance of I. ricinus as well as a reduced frequency of infected ticks (and thus indirectly a lower potential risk of Lyme borreliosis), which lasted, however, for only 2 years. Eight cultures of borreliae isolated from the ticks were all identified as the 'ornithophilic' genomic species Borrelia garinii, possibly indicating a greater role of forest birds than that of forest rodents as the hosts of immature I. ricinus in the tick (and borrelial) colonization of the cleared part of the forest.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0013,
      author = {Z. Hubálek and J. Halouzka and Z. Juricová and S. Sikutová and I. Rudolf},
      title = {Effect of forest clearing on the abundance of Ixodes ricinus ticks and the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.},
      journal = {Medical and Veterinary Entomology},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {20},
      number = {2},
      pages = {166--172},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2915.2006.00615.x}
    }
    					
    EDEN0085 Hubálek, Z.; Halouzka, J.; Juricová, Z.; Sikutová, S.; Rudolf, I.; Honza, M.; Janková, J.; Chytil, J.; Marec, F. & Sitko, J. Serologic survey of birds for West Nile Flavivirus in southern Moravia (Czech Republic) 2008 Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
    Vol. 8 (5) , pp. 659-666  
    article animals; antibodies, viral, blood; bird diseases, epidemiology/virology; birds; czech republic, epidemiology; seroepidemiologic studies; west nile fever, epidemiology/veterinary; west nile virus, isolation /&/ purification
    Abstract: A serosurvey for West Nile virus (WNV) was carried out in 54 domestic birds (geese and ducks bred on fishponds) and 391 wild birds representing 28 migratory and resident species, using a plaque-reduction neutralization microtest with Vero cells and Egyptian topotype Eg-101 strain as test virus. The birds were sampled in the South-Moravian fishpond ecosystem between 2004 and 2006. Antibodies to WNV were not detected in domestic waterfowl, but 23 (5.9 free-living birds of 10 species showed a positive response. These were the common coot (Fulica atra, 5 positive/18 examined), common kingfisher (Alcedo atthis, 1/1), reed warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus, 2/80), sedge warbler (A. schoenobaenus, 3/80), marsh warbler (A. palustris, 2/28), Savi's warbler (Locustella luscinioides, 3/12), reed bunting (Emberiza schoeniclus, 1/28), blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla, 2/11), penduline tit (Remiz pendulinus, 1/14), blue tit (Parus caeruleus, 1/1), and starling (Sturnus vulgaris, 2/4). The antibody titers were comparatively low (1:20-1:40), and the only high titer (1:160) was found in an adult marsh warbler. When 14 of the sera reacting with WNV were titrated in parallel with Usutu Flavivirus, 12 were interpreted as having specific antibodies to WNV, one coot had a higher titer against Usutu virus, and another one could not be attributed to either of the two viruses. In conclusion, 13 (3.3 of 391 wild birds had specific antibodies to WNV. The results indicate that WNV activity in southern Moravia was limited during 2004-2006.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0085,
      author = {Z. Hubálek and J. Halouzka and Z. Juricová and S. Sikutová and I. Rudolf and M. Honza and J. Janková and J. Chytil and F. Marec and J. Sitko},
      title = {Serologic survey of birds for West Nile Flavivirus in southern Moravia (Czech Republic)},
      journal = {Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {8},
      number = {5},
      pages = {659--666},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2007.0283}
    }
    					
    EDEN0032 Hubálek, Z.; Lukácová, L.; Halouzka, J.; Sirucek, P.; Januska, J.; Precechtelová, J. & Procházka, P. Import of West Nile virus infection in the Czech Republic 2006 European Journal of Epidemiology
    Vol. 21 (4) , pp. 323-324  
    article aged; czech republic; humans; male; travel; united states; west nile fever
    Abstract: We report West Nile virus infection of the central nervous system in a 69-year-old man, residing in North Moravia (Czech Republic), who visited the USA from 6 July to 31 August 2002. He developed fever with fatigue at the end of his US stay, and was hospitalized in Ostrava after his return on 3 September with fever (up to 39.5 degrees Celsius), fatigue, anorexia, moderate laryngotracheitis, dizziness, insomnia, blurred speech, and a marked bradypsychism. EEG demonstrated a slow bifrontal theta-delta activity, and CT of the brain a slight hydrocephalus. A significant increase of antibodies neutralizing West Nile virus was detected between the first (1:16) and second (1:256) blood serum sample. The patient recovered gradually and was released from hospital on 16 September. This is the first recorded human case of West Nile fever (WNF) imported to the Czech Republic. Nine similar cases of WNF import from the USA have already been reported in other European countries - France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Germany.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0032,
      author = {Z. Hubálek and L. Lukácová and J. Halouzka and P. Sirucek and J. Januska and J. Precechtelová and P. Procházka},
      title = {Import of West Nile virus infection in the Czech Republic},
      journal = {European Journal of Epidemiology},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {21},
      number = {4},
      pages = {323--324},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10654-006-0019-5}
    }
    					
    EDEN0080 Hubálek, Z.; Wegner, E.; Halouzka, J.; Tryjanowski, P.; Jerzak, L.; Sikutová, S.; Rudolf, I.; Kruszewicz, A.G.; Jaworski, Z. & WŁodarczyk, R. Serologic survey of potential vertebrate hosts for West Nile virus in Poland 2008 Viral Immunology
    Vol. 21 (2) , pp. 247-253  
    article
    Abstract: A survey for antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV; genus Flavivirus) was carried out by plaque-reduction neutralization microtesting in 78 horses, 20 domestic chickens, and 97 wild birds belonging to 10 species from different areas in Poland. Specific antibodies were detected in five juvenile (hatching-year) birds collected in 2006: three white storks (Ciconia ciconia) in a wildlife rehabilitation center (5.4% of all examined storks; the antibody titers in each bird were 1:320, 1:160, and 1:20), one free-living mute swan (Cygnus olor; the titer was 1:20), and one hooded crow (Corvus corone cornix; the titer 1:20) in a wildlife rehabilitation center; thus the overall seropositivity to WNV was 5.2% among all the birds sampled. These data do not rule out the presence of WNV activity in Poland with 100% certainty, but they indicate a significant trace that demands verification. In addition, one black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus) had neutralizing antibodies for the Usutu Flavivirus, the first case recorded in Poland.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0080,
      author = {Zdenek Hubálek and Elzbieta Wegner and Jirí Halouzka and Piotr Tryjanowski and Leszek Jerzak and Silvie Sikutová and Ivo Rudolf and Andrzej G Kruszewicz and Zbigniew Jaworski and Radosław WŁodarczyk},
      title = {Serologic survey of potential vertebrate hosts for West Nile virus in Poland},
      journal = {Viral Immunology},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {21},
      number = {2},
      pages = {247--253},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vim.2007.0111}
    }
    					
    EDEN0172 Hubálek, Z. Biogeography of tick-borne Bhanja virus (Bunyaviridae) in Europe 2009 Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
    Vol. 2009 , pp. 1-11  
    article
    Abstract: Bhanja virus (BHAV) is pathogenic for young domestic ruminants and also for humans, causing fever and affections of the central nervous system. This generally neglected arbovirus of the family Bunyaviridae is transmitted by metastriate ticks of the genera Haemaphysalis, Dermacentor, Hyalomma, Rhipicephalus, Boophilus, and Amblyomma. Geographic distribution of BHAV covers southern and Central Asia, Africa, and southern (partially also central) Europe. Comparative biogeographic study of eight known natural foci of BHAV infections in Europe (in Italy, Croatia, Bulgaria, Slovakia) has revealed their common features. (1) submediterranean climatic pattern with dry growing season and wet mild winter (or microlimatically similar conditions, e.g., limestone karst areas in central Europe), (2) xerothermic woodland-grassland ecosystem, with plant alliances Quercetalia pubescentis, Festucetalia valesiacae, and Brometalia erecti, involving pastoral areas, (3) presence of at least one of the tick species Haemaphysalis punctata, Dermacentor marginatus, Rhipicephalus bursa, and/or Hyalomma marginatum, and (4) presence of >/=60% of the 180 BHAV bioindicator (157 plant, 4 ixodid tick, and 19 vertebrate spp.). On that basis, Greece, France (southern, including Corsica), Albania, Spain, Hungary, European Turkey, Ukraine (southern), Switzerland (southern), Austria (southeastern), Germany (southern), Moldova, and European Russia (southern) have been predicted as additional European regions where BHAV might occur.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0172,
      author = {Zdenek Hubálek},
      title = {Biogeography of tick-borne Bhanja virus (Bunyaviridae) in Europe},
      journal = {Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {2009},
      pages = {1--11},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2009/372691}
    }
    					
    EDEN0136 Jarošová, V.; Rudolf, I.; Halouzka, J. & Hubálek, Z. [Borrelia burgdorferi sl in ixodid ticks from Ostrava slag heaps] 2009 Epidemiologie, mikrobiologie, imunologie
    Vol. 58 (2) , pp. 90-97  
    article ixodes ricinus; slag heaps; lyme borreliosis; transmission risk
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0136,
      author = {Jarošová, V. and Rudolf, I. and Halouzka, J. and Hubálek, Z.},
      title = {[Borrelia burgdorferi sl in ixodid ticks from Ostrava slag heaps]},
      journal = {Epidemiologie, mikrobiologie, imunologie},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {58},
      number = {2},
      pages = {90--97}
    }
    					
    EDEN0075 Johansson, P.; Olsson, G.E.; Low, H.-T.; Bucht, G.; Ahlm, C.; Juto, P. & Elgh, F. Puumala Hantavirus genetic variability in an endemic region (Northern Sweden) 2008 Infection, Genetics and Evolution
    Vol. 8 (3) , pp. 286-296  
    article endemic diseases; genome, viral; hantavirus, genetics; hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, epidemiology/virology; humans; phylogeny; puumala virus, genetics; sequence homology, nucleic acid; sweden, epidemiology; variation (genetics)
    Abstract: Puumala hantavirus (PUUV), naturally harboured and shed by bank voles (Myodes [Clethrionomys] glareolus), is the etiological agent to nephropathia epidemica (NE), a mild haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Both host and virus are found throughout much of the European continent and in northern Sweden NE is the second most prevalent serious febrile viral infection after influenza. The reliability of diagnostics by PCR depends on genetic variability for the detection of viral nucleic acids in unknown samples. In the present study we evaluated the genetic variability of PUUV isolated from bank voles in an area of northern Sweden highly endemic for NE. Genetic variability among bank voles was also investigated to evaluate co-evolutionary patterns. We found that the viral sequence appeared stable across the 80km study region, with the exception of the southernmost sampling site, which differed from its nearest neighbour by 7 despite a geographical separation of only 10km. The southernmost sampling site demonstrated a higher degree of genetic similarity to PUUV previously isolated 100km south thereof; two locations appear to constitute a separate PUUV phylogenetic branch. In contrast to the viral genome, no phylogenetic variance was observed in the bank vole mtDNA in this study. Previous studies have shown that as a result of terrestrial mammals' postglacial re-colonization routes, bank voles and associated PUUV of a southern and a northern lineage established a dichotomous contact zone across the Scandinavian peninsula approximately 100-150km south of the present study sites. Our observations reveal evolutionary divergence of PUUV that has led to dissimilarities within the restricted geographical scale of the northern host re-colonization route as well. These results suggest either a static situation in which PUUV strains are regionally well adapted, or an ongoing process in which strains of PUUV circulate on a geographical scale not yet reliably described.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0075,
      author = {Patrik Johansson and Gert E Olsson and Hwee-Teng Low and Göran Bucht and Clas Ahlm and Per Juto and Fredrik Elgh},
      title = {Puumala Hantavirus genetic variability in an endemic region (Northern Sweden)},
      journal = {Infection, Genetics and Evolution},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {8},
      number = {3},
      pages = {286--296},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2008.01.003}
    }
    					
    EDEN0108 Juricová, Z. & Hubálek, Z. Serologic survey of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato 2009 Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
    Vol. 9 , pp. 479-482  
    article
    Abstract: Sera of 642 wild boars (Sus scrofa) shot by hunters in ten administrative regions of the Czech Republic during 1995–2000, were tested by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA) for the presence of anti-Borrelia IgG. Antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bb) were detected in serum samples from all 10 regions, and overall seroprevalence rate was 12.8%. Titres of antibodies ranged from 1:80 to 1:640. Borrelia antibodies were most frequent in the animals from three administrative regions of the Czech Republic: Moravskoslezský (25.0%), Pardubický (25.0%) and Královehradecký (24.1%), followed by the regions Plzenský (16.7%), Olomoucký (13.3%), Jihomoravský (12.8%), Vysocina (11.1%), Jihoceský (11.1%), Zlínský (10.3%), and Liberecký (8.9%). Seasonal seroprevalence rate increased in March and April, the peak was in May. The results suggest frequent exposure of wild boars to ixodid ticks infected with Bb, predominantly in rural and forested regions. The study also reviews the importance of wild boar in Lyme borreliosis (LB) ecology. Wild boar serology may provide another means of surveillance of endemic areas of LB.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0108,
      author = {Juricová, Z. and Hubálek, Z.},
      title = {Serologic survey of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato},
      journal = {Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases},
      publisher = {Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2 Madison Avenue Larchmont, NY 10538 USA},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {9},
      pages = {479--482},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2008.0125}
    }
    					
    EDEN0023 Kallio, E. Experimental ecology on the interaction between the Puumala Hantavirus and its host, the bank vole. 2006 , pp. 31 p. School: University of Jyväskylä   phdthesis bank vole; infection prevalence; maternal antibodies; puumala hantavirus; robo-virus; transmission dynamics; zoonotic diseases.
    Abstract: More than half of the known human pathogens have their origins in various animal species in nature. To understand the zoonotic risks for humans, the biology and relationships between a specific pathogen and its carrier host species need to be well known. In this thesis, the relationship between Puumala hantavirus (PUUV), and its carrier, the bank vole (Myodes [Clethrionomys] glareolus) was investigated using an experimental approach. Laboratory experiments showed that PUUV remains infectious outside the host for a prolonged period of time. This is influenced by the environmental conditions. The maternal antibodies that infected females provide to their progeny postponed the PUUV infection and enhanced the breeding success of young bank voles. The role of the infection status of breeding females in the transmission dynamics of PUUV in bank vole populations was studied using two experiments in nature. Accordingly, the infection status of breeding females has substantial influence on the transmission of PUUV to and among the young bank voles during and soon after the breeding season. PUUV infection had a negative influence on the over-winter survival of bank voles, whereas the breeding success or survival during the breeding season was not
    affected by the infection. These studies suggest that PUUV transmission in the bank vole populations is influenced by the temporary immunity the maternal antibodies provide, by the prolonged survival of PUUV outside the host and by the decreased winter survival of PUUV infected bank voles.
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{EDEN0023,
      author = {Kallio, E.R.},
      title = {Experimental ecology on the interaction between the Puumala Hantavirus and its host, the bank vole.},
      school = {University of Jyväskylä},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {31 p.},
      url = {http://dissertations.jyu.fi/studbiol/9513925781.pdf}
    }
    					
    EDEN0111 Kallio, E.R.; Begon, M.; Henttonen, H.; Koskela, E.; Mappes, T.; Vaheri, A. & Vapalahti, O. Cyclic Hantavirus epidemics in humans - Predicted by rodent host dynamics 2009 Epidemics
    Vol. 1 (2) , pp. 101-107  
    article bank vole cycles, ecology, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, rodent-borne disease, zoonoses
    Abstract: Wildlife-originated zoonotic diseases are a major contributor to emerging infectious diseases. Hantaviruses cause thousands of human disease cases annually worldwide, and understanding and predicting human hantavirus epidemics still poses unsolved challenges. Here we studied the three-level relationships between the human disease nephropathia epidemica (NE), its etiological agent Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) and the rodent host of the virus, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). A large and long-term data set (14 years, 2583 human NE cases and 4751 trapped bank voles) indicates that the number of human infections shows both seasonal and multi-annual fluctuations, is influenced by the phase of vole cycle and time of the year, and follows vole abundance with a lag of a few months. Our results suggest that although human hantavirus epidemics are preceded by high sero prevalence in the host population, they may be accurately predicted solely by the population dynamics of the carrier species, even without any knowledge about hantavirus dynamics in the host populations.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0111,
      author = {Eva R. Kallio and Michael Begon and Heikki Henttonen and Esa Koskela and Tapio Mappes and Antti Vaheri and Olli Vapalahti},
      title = {Cyclic Hantavirus epidemics in humans -- Predicted by rodent host dynamics},
      journal = {Epidemics},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {1},
      number = {2},
      pages = {101--107},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epidem.2009.03.002}
    }
    					
    EDEN0004 Kallio, E.R.; Klingström, J.; Gustafsson, E.; Manni, T.; Vaheri, A.; Henttonen, H.; Vapalahti, O. & Lundkvist, . Prolonged survival of Puumala Hantavirus outside the host: evidence for indirect transmission via the environment 2006 Journal of General Virology
    Vol. 87 , pp. 2127-2134  
    article
    Abstract: The capability of rodent-borne viruses to survive outside the host is critical for the transmission dynamics within rodent populations and to humans. The transmission of Puumala virus (PUUV) in colonized bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) was investigated and additional longevity studies in cell culture with PUUV and Tula (TULV) hantaviruses were performed.Wild-type PUUV excreted by experimentally infected donor bank voles was shown to be transmitted indirectly between rodents through contaminated beddings, and maintained its infectivity to recipient voles at room temperature for 12–15 days. In cell culture supernatants, PUUV and TULV remained infectious for 5–11 days at roomtemperature and up to 18 days at 4 6C, but were inactivated after 24 h at 37 6C. Interestingly, a fraction of dried virus was still infectious after 1 h at 56 6C. These results demonstrated that hantavirus transmission does not require direct contact between rodents, or between rodents and humans, and that the indirect transmission of PUUV through contaminated environment takes place among the rodents for a prolonged period of time. The results also have implications for safety recommendations for work with hantaviruses and for preventive measures.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0004,
      author = {E. R. Kallio and J. Klingström and E. Gustafsson and T. Manni and A. Vaheri and H. Henttonen and O. Vapalahti and  Lundkvist},
      title = {Prolonged survival of Puumala Hantavirus outside the host: evidence for indirect transmission via the environment},
      journal = {Journal of General Virology},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {87},
      pages = {2127-2134},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/vir.0.81643-0}
    }
    					
    EDEN0017 Kallio, E.R.; Poikonen, A.; Vaheri, A.; Vapalahti, O.; Henttonen, H.; Koskela, E. & Mappes, T. Maternal antibodies postpone Hantavirus infection and enhance individual breeding success 2006 Proceedings of the Royal Society B
    Vol. 273 (1602) , pp. 2771-2776  
    article animals; arvicolinae; disease reservoirs; disease susceptibility; female; hantavirus infections; immunity, maternally-acquired; male; puumala virus; reproduction; rodent diseases
    Abstract: The transfer of maternal antibodies from mother to progeny is a well-known phenomenon in avian and mammalian species. Optimally, they protect the newborn against the pathogens in the environment. The effect of maternal antibodies on microparasite transmission dynamics may have important consequences for both the fitness of the host and the epizootic processes of the pathogens. However, there is a scarcity of studies examining these effects in free-living wild species. We studied the influence of maternal antibodies against the zoonotic Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) on the fitness of bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) and on PUUV transmission by exposing young maternal antibody-positive (MatAb+) and negative (MatAb-) bank voles (n=160) to PUUV in experimental populations. PUUV-specific maternal antibodies delayed the timing of infection. Females were more susceptible to PUUV infection than males. Interestingly, both the females and the males with maternal antibodies matured earlier than the other individuals in the population. Our results highlight the significance of maternal antibodies in the transmission of a pathogen and in the breeding success of the carriers.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0017,
      author = {E. R Kallio and A. Poikonen and A. Vaheri and O. Vapalahti and H. Henttonen and E. Koskela and T. Mappes},
      title = {Maternal antibodies postpone Hantavirus infection and enhance individual breeding success},
      journal = {Proceedings of the Royal Society B},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {273},
      number = {1602},
      pages = {2771--2776},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2006.3645}
    }
    					
    EDEN0022 Kallio, E.R.; Voutilainen, L.; Vapalahti, O.; Vaheri, A.; Henttonen, H.; Koskela, E. & Mappes, T. Endemic Hantavirus infection impairs the winter survival of its rodent host 2007 Ecology
    Vol. 88 (8) , pp. 1911-1916  
    article age factors; animals; arvicolinae; endemic diseases; female; finland; hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome; male; population density; population dynamics; puumala virus; rodent diseases; seasons; sex factors; species specificity; survival analysis
    Abstract: The influence of pathogens on host fitness is one of the key questions in infection ecology. Hantaviruses have coevolved with their hosts and are generally thought to have little or no effect on host survival or reproduction. We examined the effect of Puumala virus (PUUV) infection on the winter survival of bank voles (Myodes glareolus), the host of this virus. The data were collected by monitoring 22 islands over three consecutive winters (a total of 55 island populations) in an endemic area of central Finland. We show that PUUV infected bank voles had a significantly lower overwinter survival probability than antibody negative bank voles. Antibody negative female bank voles from low-density populations living on large islands had the highest survival. The results were similar at the population level as the spring population size and density were negatively correlated with PUUV prevalence in the autumn. Our results provide the first evidence for a significant effect of PUUV on host survival suggesting that hantaviruses, and endemic pathogens in general, deserve even more attention in studies of host population dynamics.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0022,
      author = {Eva R Kallio and Liina Voutilainen and Olli Vapalahti and Antti Vaheri and Heikki Henttonen and Esa Koskela and Tapio Mappes},
      title = {Endemic Hantavirus infection impairs the winter survival of its rodent host},
      journal = {Ecology},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {88},
      number = {8},
      pages = {1911--1916},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/06-1620.1}
    }
    					
    EDEN0001 Kallio-Kokko, H.; Laakkonen, J.; Rizzoli, A.; Tagliapietra, V.; Cattadori, I.; Perkin, S.; Hudson, P.; Cristofolini, A.; Versini, W.; Vapalahti, O.; Vaheri, A. & Henttonen, H. Hantavirus and Arenavirus antibody prevalence in rodents and humans in Trentino, Northern Italy. 2006 Epidemiology and Infection
    Vol. 134 (4) , pp. 830-836  
    article
    Abstract: The spatial and temporal distribution of hantavirus and arenavirus antibody-positive wild rodents in Trentino, Italy, was studied using immuno?uorescence assays (IFA) in two long-term sites trapped in 2000–2003, and six other sites trapped in 2002. The overall hantavirus seroprevalence in the bank voles, Clethrionomys glareolus (n=229) screened for Puumala virus (PUUV) antibodies was 0.4%, and that for Apodemus ?avicollis mice (n=1416) screened for Dobrava virus (DOBV) antibodies was 0.2%. Antibodies against lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) were found in 82 (5.6%) of the 1472 tested rodents ; the seroprevalence being 6.1% in A. ?avicollis (n=1181), 3.3% in C. glareolus (n=276), and 14.3% in Microtus arvalis (n=7). Of the serum samples of 488 forestry workers studied by IFA, 12 were LCMV-IgG positive (2.5%) and one DOBV-IgG positive (0.2%), however, the latter could not be con?rmed DOBV-speci?c with a neutralization assay. Our results show a widespread distribution but low prevalence of DOBV in Trentino, and demonstrate that the arenavirus antibodies are a common ?nding in several other rodent species besides the house mouse.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0001,
      author = {Kallio-Kokko, H. and Laakkonen, J. and Rizzoli, A. and Tagliapietra, V. and Cattadori, I. and Perkin, S.E. and Hudson, P.J. and Cristofolini, A. and Versini, W. and Vapalahti, O. and Vaheri, A. and Henttonen, H.},
      title = {Hantavirus and Arenavirus antibody prevalence in rodents and humans in Trentino, Northern Italy.},
      journal = {Epidemiology and Infection},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {134},
      number = {4},
      pages = {830-836},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268805005431}
    }
    					
    EDEN0027 Kinnunen, P.; Billich, C.; Ek-Kommonen, C.; Henttonen, H.; Kallio, R.K.E.; Niemimaa, J.; Palva, A.; Staeheli, P.; Vaheri, A. & Vapalahti, O. Serological evidence for Borna disease virus infection in humans, wild rodents and other vertebrates in Finland 2007 Journal of Clinical Virology
    Vol. 38 (1) , pp. 64-69  
    article animals; animals, wild; antibodies, viral; bird diseases; birds; borna disease; borna disease virus; cat diseases; cats; cattle; cell line; disease reservoirs; dog diseases; dogs; finland; horses; humans; occupational diseases; rodent diseases; rodentia; seroepidemiologic studies; sheep; veterinarians
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Borna disease virus (BDV) can infect many vertebrate species, including humans. BDV infection may lead to meningoencephalomyelitis in animals. An association with human neuropsychiatric diseases has been reported, but the causal relationship between BDV and human disease remains unclear. OBJECTIVES AND STUDY DESIGN: To find out whether BDV is present in Finland and to look for a potential reservoir, we examined a large panel of blood samples from different vertebrate species with immunofluorescence assay. Samples from horses, cats, dogs, sheep, cattle, large predators, grouse, wild rodents and humans were included. Most positive results were confirmed by other specific methods and in other laboratories. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: BDV-specific antibodies were detected in 10 horses, 2 cats, as well as 2 horses and 1 dog from farms housing a previously detected seropositive horse. Interestingly, BDV-specific antibodies were further detected in three wild rodents. In humans, BDV-specific antibodies were detected in a veterinarian and in two patients suspected to have a Puumala hantavirus infection. Our serological analysis suggests that BDV infects various vertebrates in Finland, including humans. Furthermore, our data indicate for the first time that BDV infects also wild rodents.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0027,
      author = {P.M. Kinnunen and C. Billich and C. Ek-Kommonen and H. Henttonen and R. K. E. Kallio and J. Niemimaa and A. Palva and P. Staeheli and A. Vaheri and O. Vapalahti},
      title = {Serological evidence for Borna disease virus infection in humans, wild rodents and other vertebrates in Finland},
      journal = {Journal of Clinical Virology},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {38},
      number = {1},
      pages = {64--69},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2006.10.003}
    }
    					
    EDEN0019 Klingström, J.; Akerström, S.; Hardestam, J.; Stoltz, M.; Simon, M.; Falk, K.I.; Mirazimi, A.; Rottenberg, M. & Lundkvist, . Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite have different antiviral effects against Hantavirus replication and free mature virions 2006 European Journal of Immunology
    Vol. 36 (10) , pp. 2649-2657  
    article animals; antiviral agents; blotting, western; brain; cells, cultured; cercopithecus aethiops; hantavirus; hantavirus infections; humans; mice; mice, inbred c57bl; molsidomine; nitric oxide; nitric oxide donors; nitric oxide synthase type ii; peroxynitrous acid; reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction; s-nitroso-n-acetylpenicillamine; vero cells; virion; virus replication
    Abstract: Reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI), like nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite, have antiviral effects against certain viruses. Hantaviruses, like other members of the Bunyaviridae family, have previously not been shown to be sensitive to RNI. In this study, we compared the effects of NO and peroxynitrite on hantavirus replication and free mature virions in vitro, and of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in hantavirus-infected suckling mice. The NO-generating compound S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), as well as cytokine-induced NO, strongly inhibited hantavirus replication in Vero E6 cells, while pretreatment of free virions with SNAP only had a limited effect on their viability. In contrast, 3-morpholinosydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1), a peroxynitrite donor, inhibited virus replication only to a very low extent in vitro, but pretreatment of virus with SIN-1 led to a considerably lowered viability of the virions. Infections of various human cell types per se did not induce NO production. The viral titers in iNOS(-/-) mice were higher compared to the controls, suggesting that NO inhibits hantavirus replication in vivo. In conclusion, we show that NO has strong antiviral effects on hantavirus replication, and peryoxynitrite on mature free virions, suggesting that different RNI can have different effects on various parts of the replication cycle for the same virus.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0019,
      author = {J. Klingström and S. Akerström and J. Hardestam and M. Stoltz and M. Simon and K. I. Falk and A. Mirazimi and M. Rottenberg and  Lundkvist},
      title = {Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite have different antiviral effects against Hantavirus replication and free mature virions},
      journal = {European Journal of Immunology},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {36},
      number = {10},
      pages = {2649--2657},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.200535587}
    }
    					
    EDEN0014 Klingström, J.; Hardestam, J. & Lundkvist, . Dobrava, but not Saaremaa, Hantavirus is lethal and induces nitric oxide production in suckling mice. 2006 Microbes and Infection
    Vol. 8 (3) , pp. 728-737  
    article animals; animals, suckling; antibodies, viral; brain; gene expression regulation, enzymologic; hantavirus; hantavirus infections; mice; mice, knockout; nitrates; nitric oxide; nitric oxide synthase type ii; nitrites; species specificity; virus replication
    Abstract: Hantaviruses are the causative agents of HFRS and HCPS (hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome), two severe, and often fatal human diseases. Mortality from HFRS varies between hantaviruses; Hantaan and Dobrava show the highest, Seoul intermediate, and Puumala low mortality. Saaremaa, genetically closely related to Dobrava, is also known to induce HFRS, with low or no mortality. In this study, mice were inoculated with Dobrava and Saaremaa viruses to test for infectibility, lethality, viremia, nitric oxide production and antibody responses. Out of suckling mice intracerebrally inoculated with 50, 500 and 5,000 focus-forming units of Dobrava virus, respectively, 1/8, 2/8 and 7/8 died within 18-26 days. In all but one of the lethally infected mice high levels of replicating virus were detected, and most were positive for neutralizing antibodies and showed elevated levels of nitric oxide production. All suckling mice intracerebrally inoculated with 50, 500, or 5,000 focus-forming units of Saaremaa virus survived and all seroconverted. Clearly lower viral titers were observed for the Saaremaa virus-inoculated mice, also when sacrificed at day 18 after infection, compared to those in mice that died following Dobrava virus infection. Dobrava, Saaremaa, Puumala and Hantaan virus infections of adult mice were asymptomatic, and the anti-nucleocapsid protein IgG2a/IgG1-titer ratio was higher in mice inoculated with Dobrava virus than in those inoculated with Saaremaa virus. Elevated nitric oxide production was not detected in asymptomatically infected mice, and iNOS-/- mice, like normal mice, cleared viremia. In conclusion, we show that Dobrava virus and Saaremaa virus induce distinct differences in terms of survival, viremia, nitric oxide production and antibody responses in mice.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0014,
      author = {J. Klingström and J. Hardestam and  Lundkvist},
      title = {Dobrava, but not Saaremaa, Hantavirus is lethal and induces nitric oxide production in suckling mice.},
      journal = {Microbes and Infection},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {8},
      number = {3},
      pages = {728--737},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micinf.2005.09.010}
    }
    					
    EDEN0018 Klingström, J.; Hardestam, J.; Stoltz, M.; Zuber, B.; Lundkvist, Å.; Linder, S. & Ahlm, C. Loss of cell membrane integrity in puumala Hantavirus-infected patients correlates with levels of epithelial cell apoptosis and perforin 2006 Journal of Virology
    Vol. 80 (16) , pp. 8279-8282  
    article apoptosis; caspases; cell membrane; epithelial cells; granzymes; hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome; humans; keratins; l-lactate dehydrogenase; membrane glycoproteins; perforin; pore forming cytotoxic proteins; puumala virus; serine endopeptidases
    Abstract: Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome are two diseases caused by hantaviruses. Capillary leakage is a hallmark of hantavirus infection. Pathogenic hantaviruses are not cytotoxic, but elevated levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), indicative of cellular damage, are observed in patients. We report increased levels of serum perforin, granzyme B, and the epithelial cell apoptosis marker caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 during Puumala hantavirus infection. Significant correlation was observed between the levels of LDH and perforin and the levels of LDH and caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18, suggesting that tissue damage is due to an immune reaction and that epithelial apoptosis contributed significantly to the damage.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0018,
      author = {J. Klingström and J. Hardestam and M. Stoltz and B. Zuber and Å. Lundkvist and S. Linder and C. Ahlm},
      title = {Loss of cell membrane integrity in puumala Hantavirus-infected patients correlates with levels of epithelial cell apoptosis and perforin},
      journal = {Journal of Virology},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {80},
      number = {16},
      pages = {8279--8282},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00742-06}
    }
    					
    EDEN0132 Knap, N.; Durmisi, E.; Saksida, A.; Korva, M.; Petrovec, M. & Avsic-Zupanc, T. Influence of climatic factors on dynamics of questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in Slovenia 2009 Veterinary Parasitology
    Vol. 164 (2-4) , pp. 275 - 281  
    article ixodes ricinus, dynamics, climatic factors, slovenia
    Abstract: Ixodes ricinus is a vector of pathogens that cause many diseases in Europe and Slovenia: tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), anaplasmosis, borreliosis, babesiosis and others. The risk for contracting these diseases depends strongly on the density of the infected questing ticks and many studies have investigated tick population dynamics and the parameters affecting them. They have shown a clear influence of climatic and landscape arrangements in the microhabitat on tick abundance and dynamics and therefore on transmission of pathogens important in human and veterinary medicine. In our study we assessed the influence of climatic factors on questing activity of ticks over a three-year period at 7 locations in Slovenia. Locations were selected in endemic foci of TBE with different intensity, which were identified according to the presence of human disease. Sites differ according to various abiotic and biotic factors, such as climate, amount of rain, height above sea level, vegetation and wildlife. All three stages of ticks were collected monthly over a three-year period (2005-2007). Temperature, humidity and precipitation data were collected for these years. The purpose of our study was to relate observed differences in I. ricinus ticks questing activity to local climate. We found a correlation between the decrease of questing ticks in the summer and the combination of air temperatures and humidity in the form of saturation deficit.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0132,
      author = {Natasa Knap and Emina Durmisi and Ana Saksida and Misa Korva and Miroslav Petrovec and Tatjana Avsic-Zupanc},
      title = {Influence of climatic factors on dynamics of questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in Slovenia},
      journal = {Veterinary Parasitology},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {164},
      number = {2-4},
      pages = {275 - 281},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2009.06.001}
    }
    					
    EDEN0131 Korva, M.; Duh, D.; Puterle, A.; Trilar, T. & Zupanc, T.A. First molecular evidence of Tula Hantavirus in Microtus voles in Slovenia 2009 Virus Research
    Vol. 144 (1-2) , pp. 318 - 322  
    article hantavirus, slovenia, microtus, tula virus
    Abstract: Different Microtus species, present in a worldwide range habitat populating North America, Europe, Asia, and few other species have been recognized previously as a hantavirus reservoir. Tula hantavirus was first reported in Microtus arvalis and Microtus rossiaemeridionalis from Central Russia and later discovered in several European countries. Using molecular techniques we have demonstrated the presence of Tula hantavirus in three different Microtus species in Slovenia. Phylogenetic analyses of partial S segment placed Slovenian strains in the same genetic lineage as Austrian and Croatian strains.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0131,
      author = {Misa Korva and Darja Duh and Ajda Puterle and Tomi Trilar and Tatjana Avsic Zupanc},
      title = {First molecular evidence of Tula Hantavirus in Microtus voles in Slovenia},
      journal = {Virus Research},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {144},
      number = {1-2},
      pages = {318 - 322},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2009.04.021}
    }
    					
    EDEN0127 Korva, M.; Duh, D.; Saksida, A.; Trilar, T. & Avsic-Zupanc, T. The hantaviral load in tissues of naturally infected rodents 2009 Microbes and Infection
    Vol. 11 (3) , pp. 344 - 351  
    article puumala virus; dobrava virus; saaremaa virus; quantitative real-time rt-pcr; natural host infection; viral load
    Abstract: Hantaviruses cause a lifelong and asymptomatic infection in naturally infected hosts as well as in experimentally infected rodents. Understanding the ecology and pathogenesis of hantaviruses requires an interdisciplinary research approach, which links laboratory experiments with results gained from field studies. Although several studies report hantavirus persistence and tissue infection patterns for experimentally infected rodents, field data is very limited. For this reason, the aim of our study was to investigate Puumala, Dobrava and Saaremaa virus RNA loads and tissue infection patterns in their natural reservoirs. Hantavirus RNA was demonstrated in all tested internal organs and blood samples of 14 naturally infected rodent hosts. However, the concentration of a specific virus differs depending on the virus, the host and the organ tested. Above all, the Dobrava virus showed a considerably higher viral load in all internal organs and blood samples of infected Apodemus flavicollis hosts. Results obtained in the study support the thesis that virus RNA load reaches its peak in the first month after infection, presumably after the virus has spread throughout all internal organs. This also implies that recently infected rodents are more important for transmission of the virus in the community.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0127,
      author = {Miusa Korva and Darja Duh and Ana Saksida and Tomi Trilar and Tatjana Avsic-Zupanc},
      title = {The hantaviral load in tissues of naturally infected rodents},
      journal = {Microbes and Infection},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {11},
      number = {3},
      pages = {344 - 351},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micinf.2008.12.016}
    }
    					
    EDEN0029 Krasnov, B.; Stanko, M. & Morand, S. Host community structure and infestation by ixodid ticks: repeatability, dilution effect and ecological specialization 2007 Oecologia
    Vol. 154 (1) , pp. 185-194  
    article
    Abstract: Abstract&nbsp;&nbsp;Abundance of a species in a location results from the interplay between the intrinsic properties of that species and the extrinsic properties, both biotic and abiotic, of the local habitat. Intrinsic factors promote among-population stability in abundance, whereas extrinsic factors generate variation among populations of a species. We studied (a) repeatability and (b) the effect of abundance and species richness of small mammals on the level of their infestation by larvae and nymphs of Ixodes ricinus (ecological generalist) and Ixodes trianguliceps (ecological specialist). We asked if tick infestation parameters are characteristic (=repeatable) for a particular host species or a particular stage of a particular tick species. We also asked how abundance and diversity of hosts affect the level of tick infestation on a particular host species. We predicted that the dilution effect (decrease in tick infestation levels with an increase of host abundance and/or species richness) will be better expressed in an ecological generalist, I. ricinus, than in an ecological specialist, I. trianguliceps. We found that (a) tick abundance, prevalence and aggregation were generally repeatable within tick species/stage; (b) tick abundance and prevalence, but not the aggregation level, were repeatable within host species; (c) the proportion of variance among samples explained by the differences between tick species and stages (as opposed to within-tick species and stage) was higher than that explained by the differences between host species (as opposed to within host species); and (d) the relationship between tick infestation parameters and host abundance and diversity revealed the dilution effect for I. ricinus but not for I. trianguliceps.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0029,
      author = {Krasnov, Boris and Stanko, Michal and Morand, Serge},
      title = {Host community structure and infestation by ixodid ticks: repeatability, dilution effect and ecological specialization},
      journal = {Oecologia},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {154},
      number = {1},
      pages = {185--194},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-007-0824-x}
    }
    					
    EDEN0159 Kupca, A.M.; Essbauer, S.; Zoeller, G.; de Mendonça, P.G.; Brey, R.; Rinder, M.; Pfister, K.; Spiegel, M.; Doerrbecker, B.; Pfeffer, M. & Dobler, G. Isolation and molecular characterization of a tick-borne encephalitis virus strain from a new tick-borne encephalitis focus with severe cases in Bavaria, Germany 2010 Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
    Vol. 1 (1) , pp. 44 - 51  
    article tbe
    Abstract: Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is the most important viral infection transmitted by ticks in Central Europe. In Germany, where TBE was classified as a notifiable disease in 2001, a highly variable number of clinically apparent human cases was reported in the last few years, ranging from the lowest number of 238 in 2007 to a maximum of 546 in 2006. The dynamics of the virus and its vector tick remain poorly understood. We investigated a highly active TBE focus in south-eastern Germany where from 2003 to 2008 a total of 9 clinical human cases was diagnosed. Three out of these 9 cases were fatal indicating an unusually high mortality rate possibly due to a highly virulent TBEV strain. From 2005 till 2008, 2150 Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected and tested for the presence of TBE virus. Five TBEV-positive ticks were detected by real-time RT-PCR. A viable virus strain was isolated from one of the positive ticks sampled in 2005. This is the first TBE virus isolate from a tick in Germany for 30 years. Sequencing of the full-length genome of this virus strain (AS33) revealed 2 unique amino acid substitutions in the envelope protein known to play a role in the pathogenicity of TBE virus. Amplification of the envelope gene using 2 TBEV-PCR-positive ticks from 2006 also showed these particular mutations indicating that this TBE virus strain was present in at least 2 consecutive years. The entire sampling area was divided into smaller sectors for the exact location of TBEV-positive ticks. Virus-positive ticks were found to be randomly distributed throughout the investigated focus, which is used as recreational area by the local people.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0159,
      author = {Kupca, Anne M. and Essbauer, Sandra and Zoeller, Gudrun and de Mendonça, Philippe G. and Brey, Roland and Rinder, Monika and Pfister, Kurt and Spiegel, Martin and Doerrbecker, Bastian and Pfeffer, Martin and Dobler, Gerhard},
      title = {Isolation and molecular characterization of a tick-borne encephalitis virus strain from a new tick-borne encephalitis focus with severe cases in Bavaria, Germany},
      journal = {Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {1},
      number = {1},
      pages = {44 - 51},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2009.11.002}
    }
    					
    EDEN0079 López, G.; Jiménez-Clavero, M.A.; Tejedor, C.G.; Soriguer, R. & Figuerola, J. Prevalence of West Nile virus neutralizing antibodies in Spain is related to the behavior of migratory birds 2008 Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
    Vol. 8 (5) , pp. 615-621  
    article animal migration, physiology; animals; antibodies, viral, blood; birds, physiology; prevalence; spain, epidemiology; west nile fever, epidemiology/immunology/veterinary; west nile virus, immunology
    Abstract: West Nile virus (WNV) is a bird flavivirus capable of infecting horses and humans that is transmitted by blood-sucking vectors. In Europe and Africa, sporadic infections and outbreaks causing human illness and deaths have occurred and have led to 2 mutually nonexclusive hypotheses regarding the circulation of WNV in Europe: (1) the occurrence of endemic sylvatic cycles that occasionally result in human or equine infection, or (2) sporadic seeding of WNV by migratory birds from areas where the virus is endemic in Africa or elsewhere that cause local epizootic foci and eventually lead to infection in humans. To investigate these 2 possibilities, we used a micro virus-neutralization test to examine the prevalence of WNV neutralizing antibodies in 574 individuals belonging to 25 species of birds captured in spring 2004 in Seville (southern Spain). Trans-Saharan migrant species had both higher prevalences and antibody titers than resident and short-distance migrants. This result suggests that trans-Saharan migrants spend part of their life cycles in areas with greater circulation of WNV, or a closely related flavivirus, before their arrival in Spain. On the other hand, seroprevalences assessed in resident birds suggest a low level of WNV circulation in the studied locality. Aside from the question of local circulation, it thus seems that the risk for introduction of strains of WNV from Africa by migratory birds merits further field and experimental studies in Spain.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0079,
      author = {Guillermo López and Miguel Angel Jiménez-Clavero and Concha Gómez Tejedor and Ramón Soriguer and Jordi Figuerola},
      title = {Prevalence of West Nile virus neutralizing antibodies in Spain is related to the behavior of migratory birds},
      journal = {Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {8},
      number = {5},
      pages = {615--621},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2007.0200}
    }
    					
    EDEN0088 de La Rocque, S.; Rioux, J.A. & Slingenbergh, J. Climate change: effects on animal disease systems and implication for surveillance and control 2008 Revue scientifique et technique de l'Office international des Epizooties
    Vol. 27 (2) , pp. 339-354  
    article
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0088,
      author = {de La Rocque, S. and Rioux, J. A. and Slingenbergh, J.},
      title = {Climate change: effects on animal disease systems and implication for surveillance and control},
      journal = {Revue scientifique et technique de l'Office international des Epizooties},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {27},
      number = {2},
      pages = {339--354}
    }
    					
    EDEN0002 Laakkonen, J.; Kallio, E.; Kallio-Kokko, H.; Vapalahti, O.; Vaheri, A. & Henttonen, H. Is there an association of Pneumocystis infection with the presence of arena-, hanta-, and poxvirus antibodies in wild mice and shrews in Finland? 2006 Parasitology
    Vol. 132 (4) , pp. 461-466  
    article pneumocystis, hantavirus, poxvirus, arenavirus, rodents, voles, mice, shrews
    Abstract: As part of studies on the nature of the endemic virus infections in natural rodent hosts, the possible association of cyst forms of Pneumocystis spp. with the presence of hanta-, cowpox-, and arenavirus antibodies in wild mice (Apodemus ?avicollis, N=105; Apodemus agrarius, N=63; Micromys minutus, N=50) and the common shrew (Sorex araneus, N=101) was studied in south-central Finland. One hantavirus (Saaremaa virus, SAAV) seropositive A. agrarius, and 2 cowpoxvirus (CPXV) seropositive S. araneus were detected, and antibodies against an arenavirus (Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, LCMV) were found in all 3 mouse species but not in shrews. Cyst forms of Pneumocystis spp. were detected in all species except A. agrarius. There was no signi?cant association between virus antibodies (LCMV in mice, and CPXV in shrews) and cyst forms of Pneumocystis in any of the species. Concurrent presence of virus antibodies (LCMV) and cyst forms of Pneumocystis were detected only in 1 M. minutus. In conclusion, we found no evidence of any association between Pneumocystis and antibodies to any of the viruses tested.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0002,
      author = {Laakkonen, J. and Kallio, E.R. and Kallio-Kokko, H. and Vapalahti, O. and Vaheri, A. and Henttonen, H.},
      title = {Is there an association of Pneumocystis infection with the presence of arena-, hanta-, and poxvirus antibodies in wild mice and shrews in Finland?},
      journal = {Parasitology},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {132},
      number = {4},
      pages = {461-466},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182005009315}
    }
    					
    EDEN0005 Laakkonen, J.; Kallio-Kokko, H.; Oktem, M.A.; Blasdell, K.; Plyusnina, A.; Niemimaa, J.; Karataç, A.; Plyusnin, A.; Vaheri, A. & Henttonen, H. Serological survey for viral pathogens in Turkish rodents. 2006 Journal of Wildlife Diseases
    Vol. 42 (3) , pp. 672-676  
    article animals; animals, wild; antibodies, viral; disease reservoirs; female; male; rodent diseases; rodentia; seroepidemiologic studies; turkey
    Abstract: Wild rodents (n = 330) were trapped around the villages of Altindere and Cosandere (Maçka, Trabzon Province), Ayder, Ortan, and Yolkiyi (Camlihemsin, Rize Province), and Bozdag (Odemis, Izmir Province) in northeastern and western Turkey during April 2004. Samples were tested for arenavirus, hantavirus, and cowpox virus (family Poxviridae, genus Orthopoxvirus, CPXV) antibodies by using immunofluorescence assays (IFAs). Antibodies against arenaviruses were found in eight of 330 (2.4 rodents. Arenavirus sero-positive animals were found from all study sites. Antibodies to Puumala virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus, PUUV) were detected in four of 65 Microtus voles tested. Of the PUUV-IFA-positive voles, one Microtus guentheri lydius was caught from Izmir, and one Microtus roberti and two Microtus rossiaemeridionalis were captured near Trabzon. All 264 Apodemus spp. mice tested negative for antibodies to Saaremaa virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus, SAAV); the single Dryomys nitedula tested negative for both PUUV and SAAV antibodies. Only one (0.3 of the rodents, an Apodemus sylvaticus from Trabzon area, tested seropositive to CPXV. This is the first serologic survey for rodent-borne viruses in their natural hosts in Turkey. Although these preliminary results support presence of several virus groups with zoonotic potential, additional studies are needed to identify the specific viruses that are present in these populations.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0005,
      author = {J. Laakkonen and H. Kallio-Kokko and M. A. Oktem and K. Blasdell and A. Plyusnina and J. Niemimaa and A. Karataç and A. Plyusnin and A. Vaheri and H. Henttonen},
      title = {Serological survey for viral pathogens in Turkish rodents.},
      journal = {Journal of Wildlife Diseases},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {42},
      number = {3},
      pages = {672--676}
    }
    					
    EDEN0021 Laakkonen, J.; Kallio-Kokko, H.; Vapalahti, O.; Vaheri, A.; Vyskocilova, M.; Munclingei, P.; Macholan, M. & Henttonen, H. The screening of parasites and viral pathogens of small mammals from a farm in southern Finland, and genetic identification of the Finnish house mouse, Mus musculus 2007 Annales Zoologici Fennici
    Vol. 44 (3) , pp. 202-208  
    article
    Abstract: Seven species of small mammals (N = 160) caught on a cattle farm in southern Finland were screened for various parasites and viral pathogens. Antibodies to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus were detected in 3.6% of Mus musculus (N = 110) and in 7.7% of Apodemus flavicollis (N = 26). Two (33%) Myodes (Clethrionomys) glareolus (N = 6) had Puumala virus antibodies, and one (11%) Microtus agrestis (N = 9) tested positive for cowpox virus. Of fungal organisms, Pneumocystis sp. (7.3%) and Emmonsia parvum (0.9 %) were found in histological examination of lung tissue of the house mouse. No blood parasites were detected in thin blood smears but kidney forms of Trypanosoma musculi were visible in impression smears of two of 27 (7.4%) house mice examined for the kidney forms. Meront forms of Hepatozoon sp. were detected in lung tissue sections in one Myodes glareolus. Of possible vectors of blood parasites, six species of fleas were recovered from the small mammals. House mice from the cattle farm had the sex chromosomes of the M. m. musculus type whereas mtDNA was of the M. m. domesticus type. House mice from another population in western Finland had both the nuclear and mitochondrial genome of M. m. musculus.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0021,
      author = {Laakkonen, J. and Kallio-Kokko, H. and Vapalahti, O. and Vaheri, A. and Vyskocilova, M. and Munclingei, P. and Macholan, M. and Henttonen, H.},
      title = {The screening of parasites and viral pathogens of small mammals from a farm in southern Finland, and genetic identification of the Finnish house mouse, Mus musculus},
      journal = {Annales Zoologici Fennici},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {44},
      number = {3},
      pages = {202--208}
    }
    					
    EDEN0102 Lancelot, R.; de La Rocque, S. & Chevalier, V. Rowlinson, P.; Steele, M. & Nefzaoui, A. (Hrsg.) Bluetongue and Rift Valley fever in livestock: a climate change perspective with a special reference to Europe, the Middle East and Africa. 2008 Proceedings of the international conference on livestock and global climate change 2008 , pp. 87-89   inproceedings
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{EDEN0102,
      author = {Lancelot, R. and de La Rocque, S. and Chevalier, V.},
      title = {Bluetongue and Rift Valley fever in livestock: a climate change perspective with a special reference to Europe, the Middle East and Africa.},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the international conference on livestock and global climate change 2008},
      publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {87-89}
    }
    					
    EDEN0134 Lancelot, R.; Ponçon, N.; Hendrickx, G. & Fontenille, D. Changements environnementaux et émergences de maladies à transmission vectorielle en Europe: comment améliorer la surveillance et la gestion des risques ? 2009 Bulletin de l'Académie vétérinaire de France
    Vol. 162 (1) , pp. 81-88  
    article
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0134,
      author = {Renaud Lancelot and Nicolas Ponçon and Guy Hendrickx and Didier Fontenille},
      title = {Changements environnementaux et émergences de maladies à transmission vectorielle en Europe: comment améliorer la surveillance et la gestion des risques ?},
      journal = {Bulletin de l'Académie vétérinaire de France},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {162},
      number = {1},
      pages = {81--88}
    }
    					
    EDEN0142 Linard, C. Spatial and integrated modelling of the transmission of vector-borne and zoonotic infections 2009 , pp. 174 p. School: Université catholique de Louvain   phdthesis multi-agent simulation, spatial epidemiology, malaria, land use, hantavirus, zoonotic diseases, lyme borrelisosis, vector-borne diseases, spatial modelling
    Abstract: Several vector-borne and zoonotic diseases have emerged or re-emerged in Europe over these last decades. Besides climate change that influences disease risk at a regional scale, landscape changes could be responsible for local heterogeneities in disease risk. Spatial epidemiology tries to understand and predict spatial variations in disease risk by using spatial tools and spatially-explicit modelling methods.

    This study investigated the impact of fine-grained landscape patterns on the transmission of vector-borne and zoonotic infections in terms of habitat suitability for vectors and/or hosts and of exposure of people to infectious agents. This was studied through three human diseases emerging or at risk of re-emergence in Europe: the rodent-borne Puumala hantavirus, the tick-borne Lyme borreliosis and the mosquito-borne malaria infections.

    Statistical models were first used to study the relationships between environmental variables and host abundance, host prevalence, and human cases of Puumala hantavirus. Environmental factors were also combined with socio-economic factors to explain Puumala hantavirus and Lyme borreliosis incidence rates.

    The combination of factors explaining disease transmission and the complexity of such systems led to the development of an innovative, spatially-explicit modelling method: multi-agent simulation (MAS). The MALCAM simulation model was developed to assess the risk of malaria re-emergence in southern France and simulates spatial and temporal variations in contact rate between people and potential malaria vectors. The effect of changes in potential drivers of malaria re-emergence was also simulated.

    The different case studies showed that fine-grained landscape patterns influence the presence and abundance of vectors and hosts. Moreover, environmental conditions may also influence disease transmission through pathogen dispersal and the exposure of people to infectious agents. Finally, this study showed that people-vector contacts not only depend on the spatial distribution of people and potential vectors, but also on their behaviours and interactions.

    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{EDEN0142,
      author = {Catherine Linard},
      title = {Spatial and integrated modelling of the transmission of vector-borne and zoonotic infections},
      school = {Université catholique de Louvain},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {174 p.},
      url = {http://edoc.bib.ucl.ac.be:81/ETD-db/collection/available/BelnUcetd-01202009-133839/unrestricted/Thesis-CatherineLinard.pdf}
    }
    					
    EDEN0043 Linard, C.; Lamarque, P.; Heyman, P.; Ducoffre, G.; Luyasu, V.; Tersago, K.; Vanwambeke, S.O. & Lambin, E.F. Determinants of the geographic distribution of Puumala virus and Lyme borreliosis infections in Belgium. 2007 International Journal of Health Geographics
    Vol. 6 , pp. 15  
    article animals; arachnid vectors; belgium; borrelia burgdorferi; communicable diseases, emerging; demography; environment; hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome; humans; linear models; lyme disease; multivariate analysis; poisson distribution; puumala virus; risk-taking; socioeconomic factors; topography, medical; zoonoses
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Vector-borne and zoonotic diseases generally display clear spatial patterns due to different space-dependent factors. Land cover and land use influence disease transmission by controlling both the spatial distribution of vectors or hosts, and the probability of contact with susceptible human populations. The objective of this study was to combine environmental and socio-economic factors to explain the spatial distribution of two emerging human diseases in Belgium, Puumala virus (PUUV) and Lyme borreliosis. Municipalities were taken as units of analysis. RESULTS: Negative binomial regressions including a correction for spatial endogeneity show that the spatial distribution of PUUV and Lyme borreliosis infections are associated with a combination of factors linked to the vector and host populations, to human behaviours, and to landscape attributes. Both diseases are associated with the presence of forests, which are the preferred habitat for vector or host populations. The PUUV infection risk is higher in remote forest areas, where the level of urbanisation is low, and among low-income populations. The Lyme borreliosis transmission risk is higher in mixed landscapes with forests and spatially dispersed houses, mostly in wealthy peri-urban areas. The spatial dependence resulting from a combination of endogenous and exogenous processes could be accounted for in the model on PUUV but not for Lyme borreliosis. CONCLUSION: A large part of the spatial variation in disease risk can be explained by environmental and socio-economic factors. The two diseases not only are most prevalent in different regions but also affect different groups of people. Combining these two criteria may increase the efficiency of information campaigns through appropriate targeting.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0043,
      author = {C. Linard and P. Lamarque and P. Heyman and G. Ducoffre and V. Luyasu and K. Tersago and S. O. Vanwambeke and E. F. Lambin},
      title = {Determinants of the geographic distribution of Puumala virus and Lyme borreliosis infections in Belgium.},
      journal = {International Journal of Health Geographics},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {6},
      pages = {15},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-072X-6-15}
    }
    					
    EDEN0107 Linard, C.; Ponçon, N.; Fontenille, D. & Lambin, E. A multi-agent simulation to assess the risk of malaria re-emergence in southern France 2009 Ecological Modelling
    Vol. 220 , pp. 160-174  
    article multi-agent simulation; human biting rate; malaria; camargue; anopheles hyrcanus; land use
    Abstract: A multi-agent simulation (MAS) was developed to assess the risk of malaria re-emergence in the Camargue in southern France, a non-endemic area where mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles (Culicidae) live. The contact rate between people and potential malaria vectors, or the human biting rate, is one of the key factor to predict the risk of re-emergence of malaria, would the parasite be introduced in the region. Our model (called MALCAM) represents the different agents that could influence malaria transmission in the Camargue – people, mosquitoes, animal hosts and the landscape – in a spatially explicit environment. The model simulates spatial and temporal variations in human biting rate at the landscape scale. These variations depend on the distribution of people and potential vectors, their behaviour and their interactions. A land use/cover map was used as a cellular-spatial support for the movements of and interactions between mobile agents. The model was tested for its sensitivity to variations in parameter values, and for the agreement between field observations and model predictions. The MALCAM model provides a tool to better understand the interactions between the multiple agents of the disease transmission system, and the land use and land cover factors that control the spatial heterogeneity in these interactions. It allows testing hypotheses and scenarios related to disease dynamics by varying the value of exogenous biological, geographical, or human factors. This application of agent-based modelling to a human vector-borne disease can be adapted to different diseases and regions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0107,
      author = {Linard, C. and Ponçon, N. and Fontenille, D. and Lambin, E.F.},
      title = {A multi-agent simulation to assess the risk of malaria re-emergence in southern France},
      journal = {Ecological Modelling},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {220},
      pages = {160--174},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2008.09.001}
    }
    					
    EDEN0122 Linard, C.; Ponçon, N.; Fontenille, D. & Lambin, E. Risk of malaria reemergence in southern France: testing scenarios with a multiagent simulation model 2009 EcoHealth
    Vol. May 2009 , pp. 1-13  
    article malaria, scenario, camargue, multiagent simulation, disease emergence, land use
    Abstract: The Camargue, a region in southern France, is considered a potential site for malaria reemergence. All the suitable factors of the disease transmission system are present-competent mosquito vectors, habitats for their breeding, and susceptible people-except for the parasite. The objective of this study was to test potential drivers of malaria reemergence in this system after possible changes in biological attributes of vectors, agricultural practices, land use, tourism activities, and climate. Scenarios of plausible futures were formulated and then simulated using a spatially explicit and dynamic multiagent simulation: the MALCAM model. Scenarios were developed by varying the value of model inputs. Model outputs were compared based on the contact rate between people and potential malaria vectors, and the number of new infections in case of reintroduction of the parasite in the region. Model simulations showed that the risk of malaria reemergence is low in the Camargue. If the disease would reemerge, it would be the result of a combination of unfavorable conditions: introduction of a large population of infectious people or mosquitoes, combined with high levels of people-vector contacts resulting from significant changes in land use, tourism activities, agricultural policies, biological evolution of mosquitoes, and climate changes. The representation in the MALCAM model of interactions and feedbacks between different agents, and between agents and their environment, led in some cases to counterintuitive results. Results from scenario analyses can help local public health authorities in policy formulation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0122,
      author = {Catherine Linard and Nicolas Ponçon and Didier Fontenille and Eric Lambin},
      title = {Risk of malaria reemergence in southern France: testing scenarios with a multiagent simulation model},
      journal = {EcoHealth},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {May 2009},
      pages = {1--13},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10393-009-0236-y}
    }
    					
    EDEN0060 Linard, C.; Tersago, K.; Leirs, H. & Lambin, E.F. Environmental conditions and Puumala virus transmission in Belgium 2007 International Journal of Health Geographics
    Vol. 6 (1) , pp. 1-15  
    article animals; arvicolinae; belgium; disease reservoirs; ecosystem; geographic information systems; geography; hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome; humans; prevalence; puumala virus; trees; zoonoses
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Non-vector-borne zoonoses such as Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) can be transmitted directly, by physical contact between infected and susceptible hosts, or indirectly, with the environment as an intermediate. The objective of this study is to better understand the causal link between environmental features and PUUV prevalence in bank vole population in Belgium, and hence with transmission risk to humans. Our hypothesis was that environmental conditions controlling the direct and indirect transmission paths differ, such that the risk of transmission to humans is not only determined by host abundance. We explored the relationship between, on one hand, environmental variables and, on the other hand, host abundance, PUUV prevalence in the host, and human cases of nephropathia epidemica (NE). Statistical analyses were carried out on 17 field sites situated in Belgian broadleaf forests. RESULTS: Linear regressions showed that landscape attributes, particularly landscape configuration, influence the abundance of hosts in broadleaf forests. Based on logistic regressions, we show that PUUV prevalence among bank voles is more linked to variables favouring the survival of the virus in the environment, and thus the indirect transmission: low winter temperatures are strongly linked to prevalence among bank voles, and high soil moisture is linked to the number of NE cases among humans. The transmission risk to humans therefore depends on the efficiency of the indirect transmission path. Human risk behaviours, such as the propensity for people to go in forest areas that best support the virus, also influence the number of human cases. CONCLUSION: The transmission risk to humans of non-vector-borne zoonoses such as PUUV depends on a combination of various environmental factors. To understand the complex causal pathways between the environment and disease risk, one should distinguish between environmental factors related to the abundance of hosts such as land-surface attributes, landscape configuration, and climate - i.e., host ecology, - and environmental factors related to PUUV prevalence, mainly winter temperatures and soil moisture - i.e., virus ecology. Beyond a threshold abundance of hosts, environmental factors favouring the indirect transmission path (soil and climate) can better predict the number of NE cases among humans than factors influencing the abundance of hosts.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0060,
      author = {C. Linard and K. Tersago and H. Leirs and E. F. Lambin},
      title = {Environmental conditions and Puumala virus transmission in Belgium},
      journal = {International Journal of Health Geographics},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {6},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1--15},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-072X-6-55}
    }
    					
    EDEN0137 Martin-Sánchez, J.; Morales-Yuste, M.; Acedo-Sánchez, C.; Barón, S.; Diaz, V. & Morillas-Márquez, F. Canine leishmaniasis in southeastern Spain 2009 Emerging Infectious Diseases
    Vol. 15 (5) , pp. 795-798  
    article
    Abstract: To examine prevalence changes and risk factors for canine leishmaniasis, we conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence study and a survey during April–June 2006. Seroprevalence had increased at the meso-Mediterranean bioclimatic level over 22 years. Risk was highest for dogs that were older, large, lived outside, and lived at the meso-Mediterranean level.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0137,
      author = {Martin-Sánchez, J. and Morales-Yuste, M. and Acedo-Sánchez, C. and Barón, S. and Diaz, V. and Morillas-Márquez, F.},
      title = {Canine leishmaniasis in southeastern Spain},
      journal = {Emerging Infectious Diseases},
      publisher = {Centers for Disease Control},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {15},
      number = {5},
      pages = {795--798},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.080969}
    }
    					
    EDEN0141 Matser, A.; Hartemink, N.; Heesterbeek, H.; Galvani, A. & Davis, S. Elasticity analysis in epidemiology: an application to tick-borne infections. 2009 Ecology Letters
    Vol. 12 , pp. 1-8  
    article anaplasma phagocytophila, borrelia burgdorferi, crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever virus, elasticities, kyasanur forest disease virus, next-generation matrix, rickettsia rickettsii, thogoto virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus
    Abstract: The application of projection matrices in population biology to plant and animal populations has a parallel in infectious disease ecology when next-generation matrices (NGMs) are used to characterize growth in numbers of infected hosts (R0). The NGM is appropriate for multi-host pathogens, where each matrix element represents the number of cases of one type of host arising from a single infected individual of another type. For projection matrices, calculations of the sensitivity and elasticity of the population growth rate to changes in the matrix elements has generated insight into plant and animal populations. These same perturbation analyses can be used for infectious disease systems. To illustrate this in detail we parameterized an NGM for seven tick-borne zoonoses and compared them in terms of the contributions to R0 from three different routes of transmission between ticks, and between ticks and vertebrate hosts. The definition of host type may be the species of the host or the route of infection, or, as was the case for the set of tick-borne pathogens, a combination of species and the life stage at infection. This freedom means that there is a broad range of disease systems and questions for which the methodology is appropriate.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0141,
      author = {Matser, A. and Hartemink, N. and Heesterbeek, H. and Galvani, A. and Davis, S.},
      title = {Elasticity analysis in epidemiology: an application to tick-borne infections.},
      journal = {Ecology Letters},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {12},
      pages = {1--8},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2009.01378.x}
    }
    					
    EDEN0182 Mazeris, A.; Soteriadou, K.; Dedet, J.P.; Haralambous, C.; Tsatsaris, A.; Moschandreas, J.; Messaritakis, I.; Christodoulou, V.; Papadopoulos, B.; Ivovic, V.; Pratlong, F.; Loucaides, F. & Antoniou, M. Leishmaniases and the Cyprus Paradox 2010 American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
    Vol. 82 (3) , pp. 441-448  
    article
    Abstract: In Cyprus, leishmaniasis has been considered exclusively a veterinary problem. It was prevalent before 1945, and until its recent reemergence, it was nearly eradicated by 1996 as a consequence of the destruction of reservoir hosts and vectors. A survey carried out to provide an unbiased estimate of current transmission rates in dogs and humans showed a 9-fold increase in dog seroprevalence (reaching 14.9%) compared with 10 years ago. However, no human cases caused by Leishmania infantum were detected, although L. donovani cases were reported recently. The 62 strains isolated from dogs were typed as L. infantum MON-1 (98.4%), which is the predominating zymodeme in the Mediterranean region, and MON-98 (1.6%). The Phlebotomus species P. tobbi (vector of L. infantum in Cyprus), P. galilaeus, and P. papatasi were the predominant species captured. Two transmission cycles seem to run in parallel in Cyprus: in dogs with L. infantum and in humans with L. donovani.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0182,
      author = {Mazeris, Apostolos and Soteriadou, Ketty and Dedet, Jean Pierre and Haralambous, Christos and Tsatsaris, Andreas and Moschandreas, Joanna and Messaritakis, Ippokratis and Christodoulou, Vasiliki and Papadopoulos, Byron and Ivovic, Vladimir and Pratlong, Francine and Loucaides, Fedias and Antoniou, Maria},
      title = {Leishmaniases and the Cyprus Paradox},
      journal = {American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {82},
      number = {3},
      pages = {441-448},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0282}
    }
    					
    EDEN0091 Morand, S. & Guégan, J.-F. How the biodiversity sciences may aid biological tools and ecological engineering to assess the impact of climatic changes 2008 Revue Scientifique et Technique de l'Office international des Epizooties
    Vol. 27 (2) , pp. 355-366  
    article adaptation, physiological; animals; biodiversity; climate; conservation of natural resources; demography; ecosystem; evolution; greenhouse effect; host-pathogen interactions; humans; population density; population dynamics; species specificity
    Abstract: This paper addresses how climate changes interact with other global changes caused by humans (habitat fragmentation, changes in land use, bioinvasions) to affect biodiversity. Changes in biodiversity at all levels (genetic, population and community) affect the functioning of ecosystems, in particular host-pathogen interactions, with major consequences in health ecology (emergence and re-emergence; the evolution of virulence and resistance). In this paper, the authors demonstrate that the biodiversity sciences, epidemiological theory and evolutionary ecology are indispensable in assessing the impact of climate changes, and also for modelling the evolution of host-pathogen interactions in a changing environment. The next step is to apply health ecology to the science of ecological engineering.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0091,
      author = {S. Morand and J-F. Guégan},
      title = {How the biodiversity sciences may aid biological tools and ecological engineering to assess the impact of climatic changes},
      journal = {Revue Scientifique et Technique de l'Office international des Epizooties},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {27},
      number = {2},
      pages = {355--366}
    }
    					
    EDEN0162 Nemirov, K.; Leirs, H.; Lundkvist, A. & Olsson, G.E. Puumala hantavirus and Myodes glareolus in northern Europe: no evidence of co-divergence between genetic lineages of virus and host 2010 Journal of General Virology
    Vol. 91 (5) , pp. 1262-1274  
    article
    Abstract: The genus Hantavirus (family Bunyaviridae) includes negative-strand RNA viruses that are carried by persistently infected rodent and insectivore species. Puumala virus (PUUV), carried by bank voles (Myodes glareolus), is a pathogenic hantavirus that causes outbreaks of mild haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome across Europe. In northern Europe, PUUV is represented by several genetic lineages that are maintained by distinct phylogroups of bank voles. The present study describes sequences of new PUUV strains recovered from northern and southern regions of Scandinavia and compares phylogenetic relationships between north-European PUUV strains and M. glareolus. This analysis revealed contradictions in phylogenetic clustering and remarkable differences in estimated divergence times between the lineages of PUUV and its host, suggesting that the established PUUV lineages did not co-diverge with the distinct phylogroups of M. glareolus that carry them at present.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0162,
      author = {Nemirov, Kirill and Leirs, Herwig and Lundkvist, Ake and Olsson, Gert E.},
      title = {Puumala hantavirus and Myodes glareolus in northern Europe: no evidence of co-divergence between genetic lineages of virus and host},
      journal = {Journal of General Virology},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {91},
      number = {5},
      pages = {1262-1274},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/vir.0.016618-0}
    }
    					
    EDEN0185 Neteler, M. Estimating daily land surface temperatures in mountainous environments by reconstructed MODIS LST data 2010 Remote Sensing
    Vol. 2 (1) , pp. 333-351  
    article
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0185,
      author = {Neteler, Markus},
      title = {Estimating daily land surface temperatures in mountainous environments by reconstructed MODIS LST data},
      journal = {Remote Sensing},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {2},
      number = {1},
      pages = {333--351},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/rs1020333}
    }
    					
    EDEN0176 Neteler, M. Spatio-temporal reconstruction of satellite-based temperature maps and their application to the prediction of tick and mosquito disease vector distribution in Northern Italy (abstract) 2009 , pp. 26 p. School: Leibniz University   phdthesis remote sensing, disease vector modelling, gis modelling, time series processing, modis land surface temperature map reconstruction, ixodes ricinus tick, aedes albopictus mosquito
    Abstract: High temporal resolution data from remote sensing are of great relevance to disease risk modelling since they allow an assessment of vector and disease distribution and their potential spread. However, despite its potential, up to now, remote sensing has been used far below the expectations expressed in epidemiological literature. In the present thesis, an innovative approach has been proposed for reconstructing incomplete time series of the new MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) satellite sensor. MODIS data are generated at daily resolution and freely published usually less than one week after image acquisition on a NASA FTP server. Unfortunately, the satellite maps produced by this sensor are incomplete because cloud cover ‘contaminates’ the data, and the maps also contain other pixel drop-outs. Completion of these maps is essential for an efficient GIS based time series modelling, since these models can only be developed with complete data sets. The MODIS LST map reconstruction was executed by performing an automated data download, reprojection to a commonly used map projection system, data format conversion for the GIS import, and a complex procedure to eliminate temperature outliers and to reconstruct the LST datum in areas with no data. For this last procedure, temperature gradient based models were used. Input data points were subsequently interpolated with volumetric splines to obtain complete LST maps. Subsequently, these reconstructed daily LST maps were aggregated with various ecological indicators and were also thresholded to be able to search for signals relevant to tick and mosquito related ecological processes (e.g., onset of ticks activity in spring; mosquito moulting between life stages, etc.). The obtained daily and aggregated LST maps were also compared to meteorological temperature measurements (instantaneous and aggregated measures) as well as to thermal maps from LANDSAT-TM in order to assess the quality of the data reconstruction. As a result, a completely reconstructed remotely sensed thermal data set is available for parts of Northern Italy. Using temperature gradient based models which have been developed within the thesis together with high resolution elevation maps, it was also possible to increase the original resolution of the LST maps from 1000m to 200m pixel size. Due to the subsequent aggregations of daily data,
    different derived temperature indicator data sets are now available at various temporal resolutions. In fact, more than 11.000 maps have been produced for the study area in Northern Italy. The produced maps were then applied in two case studies on disease vectors in order to understand seasonality and spatial distribution. The aggregated LST maps were used as input variables in these case studies. In the first case study on the hard tick Ixodes ricinus, time series of larvae and nymphs counts were enriched with time series of LST derived ecological indicators. Probably because of the temporally limited tick data availability, no clear signal was evident, and it was not possible to obtain a model for
    predicting the distribution of different life stages. Since it was demonstrated by comparison to meteorological data that the statistical significance of the LST data is high, an integration of further tick data may help to determine better temperature based models. A second case study was performed on the invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus, a species known to be spreading in Northern Italy. Here, two different ecological indicators extracted from aggregated daily LST maps were applied successfully to obtain distribution maps of the vector. As a first indicator, January temperature threshold maps were generated in order to assess Ae. albopictus egg winter survival. The second indicator was based on growing degree days which were filtered with an autumnal minimum threshold in order to obtain a second distribution map of the vector. Both maps coincide significantly despite the different approaches used to obtain them.
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{EDEN0176,
      author = {Markus Neteler},
      title = {Spatio-temporal reconstruction of satellite-based temperature maps and their application to the prediction of tick and mosquito disease vector distribution in Northern Italy (abstract)},
      school = {Leibniz University},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {26 p.}
    }
    					
    EDEN0065 Olsson, G.E.; Hörnfeldt, B.; Hjertqvist, M. & Lundkvist, . Sorkfeberprognos: stor smittrisk i Norrland i vinter 2007 Läkartidningen
    Vol. 104 (20) , pp. 1-4  
    article
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0065,
      author = {Olsson, G. E. and Hörnfeldt, B. and Hjertqvist, M. and Lundkvist, },
      title = {Sorkfeberprognos: stor smittrisk i Norrland i vinter},
      journal = {Läkartidningen},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {104},
      number = {20},
      pages = {1-4}
    }
    					
    EDEN0096 Olsson, G.E.; Hjertqvist, M.; Lundkvist, A. & Hörnfeldt, B. Predicting high risk for human hantavirus infections, Sweden 2009 Emerging Infectious Diseases
    Vol. 15 (1) , pp. 104-106  
    article animals; arvicolinae, virology; disease reservoirs; hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, epidemiology/virology; humans; predictive value of tests; puumala virus; risk; rodent diseases, epidemiology/virology; sweden, epidemiology
    Abstract: An increased risk for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome caused by Puumala hantavirus was forecast for Sweden in 2007. The forecast was based on a predicted increase in the number of Myodes glareolus rodents (reservoir hosts). Despite raised awareness and preparedness, the number of human cases during July 2007-June 2008 was 1,483, a new high.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0096,
      author = {Gert E Olsson and Marika Hjertqvist and Ake Lundkvist and Birger Hörnfeldt},
      title = {Predicting high risk for human hantavirus infections, Sweden},
      journal = {Emerging Infectious Diseases},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {15},
      number = {1},
      pages = {104--106},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080502}
    }
    					
    EDEN0083 Pettersson, L.; Klingström, J.; Hardestam, J.; Lundkvist, A.; Ahlm, C. &amp; Evander, M. Hantavirus RNA in saliva from patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome 2008 Emerging Infectious Diseases
    Vol. 14 (3) , pp. 406-411  
    article adult; aged; antibodies, viral, blood; base sequence; female; hantavirus; hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, virology; humans; immunoglobulin g, blood; immunoglobulin m, blood; male; middle aged; rna, viral, analysis/blood/genetics; saliva, chemistry/virology
    Abstract: Hantaviruses cause 2 zoonotic diseases, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. Infection is usually initiated after inhalation of virus-contaminated rodent excreta. In addition to the zoonotic infection route, growing evidence suggests person-to-person transmission of Andes virus. For this reason, we studied whether saliva from HFRS patients contained hantavirus. During an outbreak in northern Sweden of nephropathia epidemica (NE), a milder form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, we collected saliva and plasma from 14 hospitalized NE patients with verified Puumala virus (PUUV) infection. PUUV RNA was detected in saliva from 10 patients (range 1,530-121,323 PUUV RNA copies/mL) by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. The PUUV S-segment sequences from saliva and plasma of the same patients were identical. Our data show that hantavirus RNA could be detected in human saliva several days after onset of disease symptoms and raise the question whether interhuman transmission of hantavirus may occur through saliva.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0083,
      author = {Lisa Pettersson and Jonas Klingström and Jonas Hardestam and Åke Lundkvist and Clas Ahlm and Magnus Evander},
      title = {Hantavirus RNA in saliva from patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome},
      journal = {Emerging Infectious Diseases},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {14},
      number = {3},
      pages = {406--411}
    }
    					
    EDEN0040 Plyusnina, A.; Deter, J.; Charbonnel, N.; Cosson, J.-F. & Plyusnin, A. Puumala and Tula hantaviruses in France 2007 Virus Research
    Vol. 129 (1) , pp. 58 - 63  
    article rna viruses, hantaviruses, puumala virus, tula virus, phylogenetic analysis
    Abstract: The first genome sequences of Tula (TULV) and Puumala (PUUV) hantaviruses undoubtedly originated from France were recovered from tissue samples of European common voles and bank voles captured in Jura region. Genetic analysis of S and M segments of French PUUV strain revealed its highest similarity to strains from neighboring Belgium and Germany and also from Slovakia. On phylogenetic trees, French PUUV strain was placed within the central European lineage formed by strains from these three countries. Both of our French TULV strains clustered together and formed a distinct, well-supported genetic lineage.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0040,
      author = {Angelina Plyusnina and Julie Deter and Nathalie Charbonnel and Jean-François Cosson and Alexander Plyusnin},
      title = {Puumala and Tula hantaviruses in France},
      journal = {Virus Research},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {129},
      number = {1},
      pages = {58 - 63},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2007.04.023}
    }
    					
    EDEN0076 Plyusnina, A.; Laakkonen, J.; Niemimaa, J.; Nemirov, K.; Muruyeva, G.; Pohodiev, B.; Lundkvist, A.; Vaheri, A.; Henttonen, H.; Vapalahti, O. & Plyusnin, A. Genetic analysis of hantaviruses carried by Myodes and Microtus rodents in Buryatia 2008 Virology Journal
    Vol. 5 , pp. 4  
    article animals; genome, viral; hantavirus infections, veterinary/virology; hantavirus, classification/genetics; molecular sequence data; phylogeny; rodent diseases, virology; rodentia, classification/virology; siberia; species specificity
    Abstract: Hantavirus genome sequences were recovered from tissue samples of Myodes rufocanus, Microtus fortis and Microtus oeconomus captured in the Baikal area of Buryatia, Russian Federation. Genetic analysis of S- and M-segment sequences of Buryatian hantavirus strains showed that Myodes-associated strains belong to Hokkaido virus (HOKV) type while Microtus-associated strains belong to Vladivostok virus (VLAV) type. On phylogenetic trees Buryatian HOKV strains were clustered together with M. rufocanus- originated strains from Japan, China and Far-East Russia (Primorsky region). Buryatian Microtus- originated strains shared a common recent ancestor with M. fortis- originated VLAV strain from Far-East Russia (Vladivostok area). Our data (i) confirm that M. rufocanus carries a hantavirus which is similar to but distinct from both Puumala virus carried by M. glareolus and Muju virus associated with M. regulus, (ii) confirm that M. fortis is the natural host for VLAV, and (iii) suggest M. oeconomus as an alternative host for VLAV.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0076,
      author = {Angelina Plyusnina and Juha Laakkonen and Jukka Niemimaa and Kirill Nemirov and Galina Muruyeva and Boshikto Pohodiev and Ake Lundkvist and Antti Vaheri and Heikki Henttonen and Olli Vapalahti and Alexander Plyusnin},
      title = {Genetic analysis of hantaviruses carried by Myodes and Microtus rodents in Buryatia},
      journal = {Virology Journal},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {5},
      pages = {4},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1743-422X-5-4}
    }
    					
    EDEN0178 Ponçon, N. Etude des risques de ré-émergence du paludisme en Camargue 2008 , pp. 212 p. School: Université des Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc   phdthesis malaria, anopheles, anopheles hyrcanus, camargue, france, environment, biology, genetics, vectorial capacity, susceptibility, modelling, probabilistic method
    Abstract: Within the frame of global change currently occuring, the issue of malaria has been examined in current malaria-free areas such as Europe, and seems particularly of interest in former endemic areas where potential vectors are still abundant, such as the Camargue – South East France. Longitudinal field surveys of larvae and adult populations, conducted at the local and regional scale, determined the dynamics of the 5 Anopheles species identified in the Camargue. Among them, An. hyrcanus is the current main potential malaria vector, based on its abundance and human habit feeding behavior. Genetic study clarified its systematic position, suggesting that An. hyrcanus and An. pseudopictus would be synonymous forms in the Camargue. Spatial analysis of field data determined the spatio-temporal distribution of adult An. hyrcanus, in relation with environmental key factors calculated by remote sensing methodology. Moreover, susceptibility of French Anopheles was tested with tropical P. falciparum and showed that, while very low, it was not nil. A retrospective study concerning the abundance of An. hyrcanus populations showed how this species has become the main potential malaria vector in the Camargue due to the influence of political context, environmental constraints, technical improvements and social and economical factors which have modified biotopes of the Camargue. Finally, the risk of malaria resurgence was inferred by spatializing the entomological risk, which was based on an innovative probabilistic method, and by inferring the distribution of malaria imported cases. This work concluded on the absence of risk of malaria resurgence and emphasized the overall methodology which could be used in other areas or with others vector-borne diseases.
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{EDEN0178,
      author = {Ponçon, N.},
      title = {Etude des risques de ré-émergence du paludisme en Camargue},
      school = {Université des Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {212 p.},
      url = {http://www.mpl.ird.fr/ur016/file/Poncon_these.pdf}
    }
    					
    EDEN0056 Ponçon, N.; Balenghien, T.; Toty, C.; Ferré, J.; Thomas, C.; Dervieux, A.; L'Ambert, G.; Schaffner, F.; Bardin, O. & Fontenille, D. Effects of local anthropogenic changes on potential malaria vector Anopheles hyrcanus and West Nile virus vector Culex modestus, Camargue, France 2007 Emerging Infectious Diseases
    Vol. 13 (12) , pp. 1810-1815  
    article agriculture; animals; anopheles; culex; ecosystem; france; human activities; humans; insect vectors; insecticides; malaria; oryza sativa; socioeconomic factors; time factors; west nile fever; west nile virus
    Abstract: Using historical data, we highlight the consequences of anthropogenic ecosystem modifications on the abundance of mosquitoes implicated as the current most important potential malaria vector, Anopheles hyrcanus, and the most important West Nile virus (WNV) vector, Culex modestus, in the Camargue region, France. From World War II to 1971, populations of these species increased as rice cultivation expanded in the region in a political context that supported agriculture. They then fell, likely because of decreased cultivation and increased pesticide use to control a rice pest. The species increased again after 2000 with the advent of more targeted pest-management strategies, mainly the results of European regulations decisions. An intertwined influence of political context, environmental constraints, technical improvements, and social factors led to changes in mosquito abundance that had potential consequences on malaria and WNV transmission. These findings suggest that anthropogenic changes should not be underestimated in vectorborne disease recrudescence.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0056,
      author = {Ponçon, N. and Balenghien, T. and Toty, C. and Ferré, J.B. and Thomas, C. and Dervieux, A. and L'Ambert, G. and Schaffner, F. and Bardin, O. and Fontenille, D.},
      title = {Effects of local anthropogenic changes on potential malaria vector Anopheles hyrcanus and West Nile virus vector Culex modestus, Camargue, France},
      journal = {Emerging Infectious Diseases},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {13},
      number = {12},
      pages = {1810--1815}
    }
    					
    EDEN0077 Ponçon, N.; Toty, C.; Kengne, P.; Alten, B. & Fontenille, D. Molecular evidence for similarity between Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles pseudopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), sympatric potential vectors of malaria in France 2008 Journal of Medical Entomology
    Vol. 45 (3) , pp. 576-580  
    article anopheles hyrcanus, malaria, france, rdna, mtdna
    Abstract: Malaria was a former public health problem in the Camargue, southeastern France, where members of the Hyrcanus group were recently described as the main malaria potential vectors. However, the systematic status in this group, which includes at least two sympatric sibling species, Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas) and Anopheles pseudopictus Grassi as well as a morphologically intermediate form in the Camargue, is unclear. Indeed, both species have been alternatively considered as separated or synonymous species. We examined sequence variation of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 2 and domain-3 (D3) of 28S ribosomal DNA and the cytochrome oxidase subunit I and II (COI and COII) genes of mitochondrial DNA of the Hyrcanus group mosquitoes from the Camargue and Turkey to infer the taxonomic status of the members of this group. DNA sequence analysis of ITS2 and D3 showed no difference between either species or geographical origin (mean pairwise genetic distances d = 0.000-0.003). The COI and COII sequences between French specimens also were nearly identical (d = 0.001-0.002), whereas French and Turkish Anopheles were genetically distinct (d = 0.009-0.014). The distinction between populations of the two areas, supported, respectively, by four and five fixed mutations, attested the differentiation by the distance. Finally, the high degree of genetic similarity, despite morphological differences between An. hyrcanus, An. pseudopictus, and an intermediate form, suggests that these three taxa may belong to a single species in the Camargue.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0077,
      author = {N. Ponçon and C. Toty and P. Kengne and B. Alten and D. Fontenille},
      title = {Molecular evidence for similarity between Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles pseudopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), sympatric potential vectors of malaria in France},
      journal = {Journal of Medical Entomology},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {45},
      number = {3},
      pages = {576--580},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/0022-2585(2008)45[576:MEFSBA]2.0.CO;2}
    }
    					
    EDEN0038 Ponçon, N.; Toty, C.; L'Ambert, G.; Le Goff, G.; Brengues, C.; Schaffner, F. & Fontenille, D. Biology and dynamics of potential malaria vectors in southern France. 2007 Malaria Journal
    Vol. 6 , pp. 18  
    article animals; anopheles; behavior, animal; cattle; female; france; horses; insect vectors; malaria; population dynamics; seasons; time factors
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Malaria is a former endemic problem in the Camargue, South East France, an area from where very few recent data concerning Anopheles are available. A study was undertaken in 2005 to establish potential malaria vector biology and dynamics and evaluate the risk of malaria re-emergence. METHODS: Mosquitoes were collected in two study areas, from March to October 2005, one week every two weeks, using light traps+CO2, horse bait traps, human bait catch, and by collecting females in resting sites. RESULTS: Anopheles hyrcanus was the most abundant Anopheles species. Anopheles melanoon was less abundant, and Anopheles atroparvus and Anopheles algeriensis were rare. Anopheles hyrcanus and An. melanoon were present in summer, whereas An. atroparvus was present in autumn and winter. A large number of An. hyrcanus females was collected on humans, whereas almost exclusively animals attracted An. melanoon. Based on an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, almost 90% of An. melanoon blood meals analysed had been taken on horse or bovine. Anopheles hyrcanus and An. melanoon parity rates showed huge variations according to the date and the trapping method. CONCLUSION: Anopheles hyrcanus seems to be the only Culicidae likely to play a role in malaria transmission in the Camargue, as it is abundant and anthropophilic.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0038,
      author = {Ponçon, N. and Toty, C. and L'Ambert, G. and Le Goff, G. and Brengues, C. and Schaffner, F. and Fontenille, D.},
      title = {Biology and dynamics of potential malaria vectors in southern France.},
      journal = {Malaria Journal},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {6},
      pages = {18},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-6-18}
    }
    					
    EDEN0061 Ponçon, N.; Toty, C.; L'ambert, G.; Le Goff, G.; Brengues, C.; Schaffner, F. & Fontenille, D. Population dynamics of pest mosquitoes and potential malaria and West Nile virus vectors in relation to climatic factors and human activities in the Camargue, France 2007 Medical and Veterinary Entomology
    Vol. 21 (4) , pp. 350-357  
    article animals; culicidae; france; humans; insect vectors; malaria; mosquito control; population density; population dynamics; public health; rain; seasons; species specificity; temperature; time factors; west nile fever
    Abstract: The Camargue is an extensive wetland in the southeast of France, which is highly influenced by human activities. Large ponds, marshes and irrigated fields provide abundant potential breeding sites for mosquitoes. mosquitoes, which are important in terms of the nuisance they cause to people and animals, the limitations they impose on tourism and their potential threat to human health. Several of the mosquito species present are potential vectors of malaria and West Nile virus. Therefore, the population dynamics of these species were monitored over an entire breeding season during March-October 2005. Mosquito populations were sampled in two study areas once every 2 weeks, using CDC light traps baited with CO(2). Sixteen species were collected. The majority (98.7 of the catch were Aedes caspius (Pallas) (Diptera: Culicidae), Culex modestus (Ficalbi), Culex pipiens L. and Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas). The population dynamics of these species varied considerably in relation to the species' biology, climatic conditions (rainfall, temperature and season), water management, implementation of mosquito control campaigns and landscape use.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0061,
      author = {Ponçon, N. and Toty, C. and L'ambert, G. and Le Goff, G. and Brengues, C. and Schaffner, F. and Fontenille, D.},
      title = {Population dynamics of pest mosquitoes and potential malaria and West Nile virus vectors in relation to climatic factors and human activities in the Camargue, France},
      journal = {Medical and Veterinary Entomology},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {21},
      number = {4},
      pages = {350--357},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2915.2007.00701.x}
    }
    					
    EDEN0106 Ponçon, N.; Tran, A.; Toty, C.; Luty, A. & Fontenille, D. A quantitative risk assessment approach for mosquito-borne diseases: malaria re-emergence in southern France 2008 Malaria Journal
    Vol. 7 (1) , pp. 147  
    article
    Abstract: Background
    The Camargue region is a former malaria endemic area, where potential Anopheles vectors are still abundant. Considering the importation of Plasmodium due to the high number of imported malaria cases in France, the aim of this article was to make some predictions regarding the risk of malaria re-emergence in the Camargue.

    Methods
    Receptivity (vectorial capacity) and infectivity (vector susceptibility) were inferred using an innovative probabilistic approach and considering both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Each parameter of receptivity (human biting rate, anthropophily, length of trophogonic cycle, survival rate, length of sporogonic cycle) and infectivity were estimated based on field survey, bibliographic data and expert knowledge and fitted with probability distributions taking into account the variability and the uncertainty of the estimation. Spatial and temporal variations of the parameters were determined using environmental factors derived from satellite imagery, meteorological data and entomological field data. The entomological risk (receptivity/infectivity) was calculated using 10,000 different randomly selected sets of values extracted from the probability distributions. The result was mapped in the Camargue area. Finally, vulnerability (number of malaria imported cases) was inferred using data collected in regional hospitals.

    Results
    The entomological risk presented large spatial, temporal and Plasmodium species-dependent variations. The sensitivity analysis showed that susceptibility, survival rate and human biting rate were the three most influential parameters for entomological risk. Assessment of vulnerability showed that among the imported cases in the region, only very few were imported in at-risk areas.

    Conclusion
    The current risk of malaria re-emergence seems negligible due to the very low number of imported Plasmodium. This model demonstrated its efficiency for mosquito-borne diseases risk assessment.

    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0106,
      author = {Ponçon, N. and Tran, A. and Toty, C. and Luty, A.J.F. and Fontenille, D.},
      title = {A quantitative risk assessment approach for mosquito-borne diseases: malaria re-emergence in southern France},
      journal = {Malaria Journal},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {7},
      number = {1},
      pages = {147},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-7-147}
    }
    					
    EDEN0064 Randolph, S. Dynamics of tick-borne disease systems: minor role of recent climate change 2008 Revue scientifique et technique de l'Office international des Epizooties
    Vol. 27 (2) , pp. 367-381  
    article crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever – demographic processes – ixodes ricinus – rhipicephalus appendiculatus – socio-economic factors – tick-borne encephalitis – zoonoses
    Abstract: Tick-borne disease systems are very sensitive to climate through the impact of temperature and moisture stress on rates of the demographic processes of ticks. There is no a priori reason, however, to expect tick abundance or seasonal activity patterns to respond to climate change in ways that inevitably increase the risk of infection by the transmitted pathogens. Changing host availability may be more important than climate in determining tick abundance. The credibility of any (inherently untestable) predictions of future system-specific changes will be strengthened if based on satisfactory explanations of the past. Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in Europe is presented as a case study: observed patterns of climate change are too similar within and between countries to provide the sole explanation for the extreme spatio-temporal heterogeneity of the marked upsurges in TBE incidence over the past two decades. Instead, a nexus of interacting factors affecting both the risk of infection and exposure of humans to that risk, and each differing in force in space and time, is a more powerful model. Many of these factors are driven by socio-economic changes, and include climate, land cover, wildlife, agricultural practices, industrial activities, (un)employment and income. The same principle may apply to the periodic epidemics of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0064,
      author = {Randolph, SE},
      title = {Dynamics of tick-borne disease systems: minor role of recent climate change},
      journal = {Revue scientifique et technique de l'Office international des Epizooties},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {27},
      number = {2},
      pages = {367--381}
    }
    					
    EDEN0112 Randolph, S.; Asokliene, L.; Avsic-Zupanc, T.; Bormane, A.; Burri, C.; Gern, L.; Golovljova, I.; Hubálek, Z.; Knap, N.; Kondrusik, M.; Kupca, A.; Pejcoch, M.; Vasilenko, V. & Zygutiene, M. Variable spikes in tick-borne encephalitis incidence in 2006 independent of variable tick abundance but related to weather. 2008 Parasites and Vectors
    Vol. 1 (1) , pp. 1-44  
    article
    Abstract: ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The incidence of tick-borne encephalitis showed a dramatic spike in several countries in Europe in 2006, a year that was unusually cold in winter but unusually warm and dry in summer and autumn. In this study we examine the possible causes of the sudden increase in disease: more abundant infected ticks and/or increased exposure due to human behaviour, both in response to the weather. METHODS: For eight countries across Europe, field data on tick abundance for 2005-2007, collected monthly from a total of 41 sites, were analysed in relation to total annual and seasonal TBE incidence and temperature and rainfall conditions. RESULTS: The weather in 2006-2007 was exceptional compared with the previous two decades, but neither the very cold start to 2006, nor the very hot period from summer 2006 to late spring 2007 had any consistent impact on tick abundance. Nor was the TBE spike in 2006 related to changes in tick abundance. Countries varied in the degree of TBE spike despite similar weather patterns, and also in the degree to which seasonal variation in TBE incidence matched seasonal tick activity. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that the TBE spike was not due to weather-induced variation in tick population dynamics. An alternative explanation, supported by qualitative reports and some data, involves human behavioural responses to weather favourable for outdoor recreational activities, including wild mushroom and berry harvest, differentially influenced by national cultural practices and economic constraints.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0112,
      author = {Sarah Randolph and Loreta Asokliene and Tatjana Avsic-Zupanc and Antra Bormane and Caroline Burri and Lise Gern and Irina Golovljova and Zdenek Hubálek and Natasa Knap and Maceij Kondrusik and Anne Kupca and Milan Pejcoch and Veera Vasilenko and Milda Zygutiene},
      title = {Variable spikes in tick-borne encephalitis incidence in 2006 independent of variable tick abundance but related to weather.},
      journal = {Parasites and Vectors},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {1},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1--44},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-1-44}
    }
    					
    EDEN0090 Randolph, S.E. Perspectives on climate change impacts on infectious diseases 2009 Ecology
    Vol. 90 (4) , pp. 927-931  
    article
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0090,
      author = {Sarah E. Randolph},
      title = {Perspectives on climate change impacts on infectious diseases},
      journal = {Ecology},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {90},
      number = {4},
      pages = {927--931},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/08-0506.1}
    }
    					
    EDEN0128 Randolph, S.E. Tick-borne disease systems emerge from the shadows: the beauty lies in molecular detail, the message in epidemiology. 2009 Parasitology
    Vol. 135 , pp. 1403-1413  
    article
    Abstract: SUMMARYThis review focuses on some of the more ground-shifting advances of recent decades, particularly those at the molecular and cellular level that illuminate mechanisms underpinning the natural ecology of tick-host-pathogen interactions and the consequent epidemiology of zoonotic infections in humans. Knowledge of components of tick saliva, now recognized as the central pillar in the tick's ability to complete its blood meal and the pathogen's differential ability to use particular hosts for transmission, has burgeoned with new molecular techniques. Functional studies have linked a few of them to saliva-assisted transmission of non-systemic infections between co-feeding ticks, the quantitative key to persistent cycles of the most significant tick-borne pathogen in Europe. Human activities, however, may be equally important in determining dynamic patterns of infection incidence in humans.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0128,
      author = {S. E. Randolph},
      title = {Tick-borne disease systems emerge from the shadows: the beauty lies in molecular detail, the message in epidemiology.},
      journal = {Parasitology},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {135},
      pages = {1403--1413},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182009005782}
    }
    					
    EDEN0150 Randolph, S.E. Chapter 6. Epidemiological consequences of the ecological physiology of ticks 2009 Advances in Insect Physiology
    Vol. 37 , pp. 297-339  
    article
    Abstract: The distinctive feature of ticks as vectors of pathogens is their strategy of taking only one very large blood meal per life stage. The consequence for ticks is that they are only periodic parasites, spending most of their time subject to ambient environmental conditions unprotected by the buffering effects of their hosts. This pattern of life demands certain unique physiological systems and also imposes certain constraints on the performance of ticks as vectors. The integument shows an unusual distribution of resilin to accommodate enlargement by one or two orders of magnitude over a few days while not compromising water-proofing. Unusually low rates of respiration and metabolism ensure long periods of survival without access to energy, but concomitantly slow development rates prolong those inter-stadial periods. Ticks are faced alternately with dehydration while off the host, and over-hydration while feeding; salivary glands provide the solution to both problems, and in doing so also provide a vehicle for pathogen traffic into a host site that is immunologically receptive to infection. Persistent cycles necessarily involve two life stages, one to acquire and the other to transmit; tick phenology determines the time course of pathogen transmission, and the climate-driven degree of seasonal synchrony between feeding life stages determines which pathogen types and strains can circulate.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0150,
      author = {Randolph, Sarah E.},
      title = {Chapter 6. Epidemiological consequences of the ecological physiology of ticks},
      journal = {Advances in Insect Physiology},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {37},
      pages = {297--339},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2806(09)37006-X}
    }
    					
    EDEN0073 Randolph, S.E. Tick-borne encephalitis incidence in Central and Eastern Europe: consequences of political transition 2008 Microbes and Infection
    Vol. 10 (3) , pp. 209-216  
    article animals; encephalitis viruses, tick-borne; encephalitis, tick-borne, epidemiology; europe, eastern, epidemiology; humans; incidence; politics; risk factors; socioeconomic factors
    Abstract: The variable, often dramatic, upsurge in tick-borne encephalitis in Central and Eastern Europe can best be understood as the result of a multi-factorial system of causes, including abiotic and biotic environmental changes, and human behaviour determined by socio-economic conditions. Many of these stem from the political transition with the end of Soviet rule.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0073,
      author = {Sarah E Randolph},
      title = {Tick-borne encephalitis incidence in Central and Eastern Europe: consequences of political transition},
      journal = {Microbes and Infection},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {10},
      number = {3},
      pages = {209--216},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micinf.2007.12.005}
    }
    					
    EDEN0100 Randolph, S.E. Tick-borne encephalitis virus, ticks and humans: short-term and long-term dynamics 2008 Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
    Vol. 21 (5) , pp. 462-467  
    article animals; arachnid vectors, virology; climate; encephalitis viruses, tick-borne, classification/genetics/isolation /&/ purification; encephalitis, tick-borne, epidemiology; europe, epidemiology; humans; ixodes, growth /&/ development/virology; lyme disease, epidemiology/physiopathology/transmission; risk factors; seasons; socioeconomic factors; ticks, virology
    Abstract: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Much public health concern and scientific interest has been kindled by significant increases in incidence of tick-borne encephalitis over the past 1-2 decades. It is the most important vector-borne disease of humans in Europe, for which excellent long-term data allow robust quantitative analyses. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite the increasing tendency to attribute all increases in vector-borne diseases to climate change, there is no convincing evidence that the appearance of new foci in Sweden, Switzerland, France and Germany during this century, or the upsurge in cases within well recognized endemic regions, is due to the recorded minor extensions of infectious ticks into higher altitudes and latitudes and into winter periods, in response to warmer conditions. Rather, there is now good evidence of greater human exposure to infected ticks through altered socioeconomic circumstances (in addition to higher densities of tick-feeding deer--not reviewed here), so far best quantified for Central and Eastern Europe. SUMMARY: Increased awareness of tick-borne encephalitis and understanding of the changing risk factors, including the role of human behaviour, will ensure better personal protection against infection, including vaccination and avoidance of high-risk activities.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0100,
      author = {Sarah E Randolph},
      title = {Tick-borne encephalitis virus, ticks and humans: short-term and long-term dynamics},
      journal = {Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {21},
      number = {5},
      pages = {462--467},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0b013e32830ce74b}
    }
    					
    EDEN0011 Randolph, S.E. EDEN-Emerging diseases in a changing European environment: Tick-borne diseases 2006 International Journal of Medical Microbiology
    Vol. 296 (S1) , pp. 84-86  
    article
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0011,
      author = {Randolph, S. E.},
      title = {EDEN-Emerging diseases in a changing European environment: Tick-borne diseases},
      journal = {International Journal of Medical Microbiology},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {296},
      number = {S1},
      pages = {84--86}
    }
    					
    EDEN0156 Randolph, S.E. & Rogers, D.J. The arrival, establishment and spread of exotic diseases: patterns and predictions 2010 Nature Reviews Microbiology
    Vol. 8 , pp. 361-371  
    article
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0156,
      author = {Randolph, Sarah E. and Rogers, David J.},
      title = {The arrival, establishment and spread of exotic diseases: patterns and predictions},
      journal = {Nature Reviews Microbiology},
      publisher = {Nature Publishing Group},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {8},
      pages = {361--371},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro2336}
    }
    					
    EDEN0050 Randolph, S.E. & Sumilo, D. Takken, W. & Knols, B.G.J. (Hrsg.) 11 ( Tick-borne encephalitis in Europe: dynamics of changing risk ) 2007 Tick-borne encephalitis in Europe: dynamics of changing risk Emerging pests and vector-borne diseases in Europe , pp. 187-206   inproceedings
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{EDEN0050,
      author = {S. E. Randolph and D. Sumilo},
      title = {Tick-borne encephalitis in Europe: dynamics of changing risk},
      booktitle = {Emerging pests and vector-borne diseases in Europe},
      publisher = {Wageningen Academic Publishers},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {187-206}
    }
    					
    EDEN0049 Razzauti, M.; Plyusnina, A.; Henttonen, H. & Plyusnin, A. Accumulation of point mutations and reassortment of genomic RNA segments are involved in the microevolution of Puumala Hantavirus in a bank vole (Myodes glareolus) population 2008 Journal of General Virology
    Vol. 89 (Pt 7) , pp. 1649-1660  
    article amino acid substitution, genetics; animals; arvicolinae, virology; cluster analysis; evolution, molecular; finland; molecular sequence data; phylogeny; point mutation; puumala virus, genetics/isolation /&/ purification; rna, viral, genetics; reassortant viruses, genetics; sequence analysis, dna; sequence homology; variation (genetics); viral structural proteins, genetics
    Abstract: The genetic diversity of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) was studied in a local population of its natural host, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). The trapping area (2.5 x 2.5 km) at Konnevesi, Central Finland, included 14 trapping sites, at least 500 m apart; altogether, 147 voles were captured during May and October 2005. Partial sequences of the S, M and L viral genome segments were recovered from 40 animals. Seven, 12 and 17 variants were detected for the S, M and L sequences, respectively; these represent new wild-type PUUV strains that belong to the Finnish genetic lineage. The genetic diversity of PUUV strains from Konnevesi was 0.2-4.9 % for the S segment, 0.2-4.8 % for the M segment and 0.2-9.7 % for the L segment. Most nucleotide substitutions were synonymous and most deduced amino acid substitutions were conservative, probably due to strong stabilizing selection operating at the protein level. Based on both sequence markers and phylogenetic clustering, the S, M and L sequences could be assigned to two groups, 'A' and 'B'. Notably, not all bank voles carried S, M and L sequences belonging to the same group, i.e. S(A)M(A)L(A) or S(B)M(B)L(B). A substantial proportion (8/40, 20 of the newly characterized PUUV strains possessed reassortant genomes such as S(B)M(A)L(A), S(A)M(B)L(B) or S(B)M(A)L(B). These results suggest that at least some of the PUUV reassortants are viable and can survive in the presence of their parental strains.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0049,
      author = {Maria Razzauti and Angelina Plyusnina and Heikki Henttonen and Alexander Plyusnin},
      title = {Accumulation of point mutations and reassortment of genomic RNA segments are involved in the microevolution of Puumala Hantavirus in a bank vole (Myodes glareolus) population},
      journal = {Journal of General Virology},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {89},
      number = {Pt 7},
      pages = {1649--1660},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/vir.0.2008/001248-0}
    }
    					
    EDEN0139 Razzauti, M.; Plyusnina, A.; Sironen, T.; Henttonen, H. & Plyusnin, A. Analysis of Puumala Hantavirus in a bank vole population in northern Finland: evidence for co-circulation of two genetic lineages and frequent reassortment between strains 2009 Journal of General Virology
    Vol. 90 (8) , pp. 1923-1931  
    article
    Abstract: In this study, for the first time, two distinct genetic lineages of Puumala virus (PUUV) were found within a small sampling area and within a single host genetic lineage (Ural mtDNA) at Pallasjarvi, northern Finland. Lung tissue samples of 171 bank voles (Myodes glareolus) trapped in September 1998 were screened for the presence of PUUV nucleocapsid antigen and 25 were found to be positive. Partial sequences of the PUUV small (S), medium (M) and large (L) genome segments were recovered from these samples using RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two genetic groups of PUUV sequences that belonged to the Finnish and north Scandinavian lineages. This presented a unique opportunity to study inter-lineage reassortment in PUUV; indeed, 32 % of the studied bank voles appeared to carry reassortant virus genomes. Thus, the frequency of inter-lineage reassortment in PUUV was comparable to that of intra-lineage reassortment observed previously (Razzauti, M., Plyusnina, A., Henttonen, H. & Plyusnin, A. (2008). J Gen Virol 89, 1649-1660). Of six possible reassortant S/M/L combinations, only two were found at Pallasjarvi and, notably, in all reassortants, both S and L segments originated from the same genetic lineage, suggesting a non-random pattern for the reassortment. These findings are discussed in connection to PUUV evolution in Fennoscandia.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0139,
      author = {Razzauti, Maria and Plyusnina, Angelina and Sironen, Tarja and Henttonen, Heikki and Plyusnin, Alexander},
      title = {Analysis of Puumala Hantavirus in a bank vole population in northern Finland: evidence for co-circulation of two genetic lineages and frequent reassortment between strains},
      journal = {Journal of General Virology},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {90},
      number = {8},
      pages = {1923-1931},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/vir.0.011304-0}
    }
    					
    EDEN0199 Ready, P. Leishmaniasis emergence in Europe 2010 Eurosurveillance
    Vol. 15 (10) , pp. pii=19505  
    article
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0199,
      author = {Ready, P.},
      title = {Leishmaniasis emergence in Europe},
      journal = {Eurosurveillance},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {15},
      number = {10},
      pages = {pii=19505}
    }
    					
    EDEN0086 Ready, P. Leishmaniasis emergence and climate change 2008 Revue scientifique et technique de l'Office international des Epizooties
    Vol. 27 (2) , pp. 399-412  
    article climate change, disease emergence, leishmaniasis, phlebotomine sandfly, spatial modelling
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0086,
      author = {Ready, P.D.},
      title = {Leishmaniasis emergence and climate change},
      journal = {Revue scientifique et technique de l'Office international des Epizooties},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {27},
      number = {2},
      pages = {399--412}
    }
    					
    EDEN0154 Reiter, P. Relman, D.A.; Choffnes, E.R. & Mack, A. (Hrsg.) A mollusc on the leg of a beetle: human activities and the global dispersal of vectors and vectorborne pathogens 2010 Infectious disease movement in a borderless world , pp. 150-165   inproceedings
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{EDEN0154,
      author = {Paul Reiter},
      title = {A mollusc on the leg of a beetle: human activities and the global dispersal of vectors and vectorborne pathogens},
      booktitle = {Infectious disease movement in a borderless world},
      publisher = {The National Academies Press, Washington D.C. (USA)},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {150--165}
    }
    					
    EDEN0196 Reiter, P. West Nile virus in Europe: understanding the present to gauge the future 2010 Eurosurveillance
    Vol. 15 (10) , pp. pii=19508  
    article
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0196,
      author = {Reiter, P.},
      title = {West Nile virus in Europe: understanding the present to gauge the future},
      journal = {Eurosurveillance},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {15},
      number = {10},
      pages = {pii=19508}
    }
    					
    EDEN0198 Reiter, P. Yellow fever and dengue: a threat to Europe? 2010 Eurosurveillance
    Vol. 15 (10) , pp. pii=19509  
    article
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0198,
      author = {Reiter, P.},
      title = {Yellow fever and dengue: a threat to Europe?},
      journal = {Eurosurveillance},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {15},
      number = {10},
      pages = {pii=19509}
    }
    					
    EDEN0087 Reiter, P. Climate change and mosquito-borne disease: knowing the horse before hitching the cart 2008 Revue scientifique et technique de l'Office international des Epizooties
    Vol. 27 (2) , pp. 383-398  
    article animals; climate; conservation of natural resources; culicidae, growth /&/ development/microbiology/parasitology/virology; disease transmission, infectious; encephalitis, arbovirus, epidemiology/transmission/veterinary; forecasting; greenhouse effect; humans; insect vectors, growth /&/ development/microbiology/parasitology/virology; malaria, epidemiology/prevention /&/ control/transmission; models, biological; population dynamics; population growth; public health
    Abstract: Speculations on the potential impacts of climate change on human health often focus on the mosquito-borne diseases but ignore the complex interplay of the multitude of factors that are generally dominant in the dynamics of their transmission. A holistic view of this complexity - particularly the ecology and behaviour of the host and the ecology and behaviour of the vector - is the only valid starting point for assessing the significance of climate in the prevalence and incidence of these diseases.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0087,
      author = {P. Reiter},
      title = {Climate change and mosquito-borne disease: knowing the horse before hitching the cart},
      journal = {Revue scientifique et technique de l'Office international des Epizooties},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {27},
      number = {2},
      pages = {383--398}
    }
    					
    EDEN0130 Rizzoli, A.; Hauffe, H.; Tagliapietra, V.; Neteler, M. & Rosà, R. Forest structure and roe deer abundance predict tick-borne encephalitis risk in Italy 2009 PLoS ONE
    Vol. 4 (2) , pp. e4336  
    article
    Abstract: Background
    The Western Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus often causes devastating or lethal disease. In Europe, the number of human TBE cases has increased dramatically over the last decade, risk areas are expanding and new foci are being discovered every year. The early localisation of new TBE foci and the identification of the main risk factors associated with disease emergence represent a priority for the public health community. Although a number of socio-economic parameters have been suggested to explain TBE upsurges in eastern Europe, the principal driving factors in relatively stable western European countries have not been identified.
    Methodology/Principal Findings
    In this paper, we analyse the correlation between the upsurge of TBE in 17 alpine provinces in northern Italy from 1992 to 2006 with climatic variables, forest structure (as a proxy for small mammal reservoir host abundance), and abundance of the principal large vertebrate tick host (roe deer), using datasets available for the last 40 years. No significant differences between the pattern of changes in climatic variables in provinces where TBE has emerged compared to provinces were no clinical TBE cases have been observed to date. Instead, the best model for explaining the increase in TBE incidence in humans in this area include changes in forest structure, in particular the ratio of coppice to high stand forest, and the density of roe deer.
    Conclusion/Significance
    Substantial changes in vegetation structure that improve habitat suitability for the main TBE reservoir hosts (small mammals), as well as an increase in roe deer abundance due to changes in land and wildlife management practices, are likely to be among the most crucial factors affecting the circulation potential of Western TBE virus and, consequently, the risk of TBE emergence in humans in western Europe. We believe our approach will be useful in predicting TBE risk on a wider scale.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0130,
      author = {Rizzoli, A. and Hauffe, H.C. and Tagliapietra, V. and Neteler, M. and Rosà, R.},
      title = {Forest structure and roe deer abundance predict tick-borne encephalitis risk in Italy},
      journal = {PLoS ONE},
      publisher = {Public Library of Science},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {4},
      number = {2},
      pages = {e4336},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004336.}
    }
    					
    EDEN0039 Rizzoli, A.; Neteler, M.; Rosà, R.; Versini, W.; Cristofolini, A.; Bregoli, M.; Buckley, A. & Gould, E.A. Early detection of tick-borne encephalitis virus spatial distribution and activity in the province of Trento, northern Italy 2007 Geospatial Health
    Vol. 2 , pp. 169-176  
    article
    Abstract: New human cases of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) have recently been recorded outside the recognised foci of this disease, i.e. in the province of Trento in northern Italy. In order to predict the highest risk areas for increased TBE virus activity, we have combined cross-sectional serological data, obtained from 459 domestic goats, with analysis of the autumnal cooling rate based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST) data. A significant relationship between finding antibodies against the virus in serum (seroprevalence) in goats and the autumnal cooling rate was detected, indicating that the transmission intensity of the virus does not only vary spatially, but also in relation to climatic factors. Virus seroprevalence in goats was correlated with the occurrence of TBE in humans and also with the average number of forestry workers’ tick bites, demonstrating that serological screening of domestic animals, combined with an analysis of the autumnal cooling rate, can be used as early-warning predictors of TBE risk in humans.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0039,
      author = {A. Rizzoli and M. Neteler and R. Rosà and W. Versini and A. Cristofolini and M. Bregoli and A. Buckley and E. A. Gould},
      title = {Early detection of tick-borne encephalitis virus spatial distribution and activity in the province of Trento, northern Italy},
      journal = {Geospatial Health},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {2},
      pages = {169-176}
    }
    					
    EDEN0151 Roche, B. Complexité des écosystèmes, dynamique de la diversité biologique et maladies infectieuses. Une introduction à l'``épidémiologie des communautés''. 2008 , pp. 223 p. School: Université des Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc   phdthesis community epididemiology, infectious diseases, community ecology, ecosystems dynamics, biodiversity, multi-agent modeling, mathematical modeling
    Abstract: Infectious disease represents a critical problem for human well-being today. These diseases are caused by pathogen agents which are mainly originating from wildlife, and their understanding cannot be done without considering the whole ecosystem in which they are involved. During this PhD thesis dissertation, we show how the different components of parasite ecosystem can influence disease agent transmission. To do that, we have apply the concepts issued from community ecology and to the field of epidemiology. We analyse how the structure of species communities, the ecological relationships between species and the links that connect them to each other and their life history traits can impact on parasite transmission within the environment. After developing a generic model for vector-borne diseases in wildlife living in an heterogeneous environment, we show how the spatial distribution of host reservoir and vector species can affect the general characteristics of pathogen transmission. At last, we discuss on a better consideration of ecological litteracies in epidemiology, and their importance in public human health. We conclude on the necessity to conduct a more global approach in epidemiology to study the transmission of these pathogens in wildlife, and we outline new avenues of research.
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{EDEN0151,
      author = {Roche, B.},
      title = {Complexité des écosystèmes, dynamique de la diversité biologique et maladies infectieuses. Une introduction à l'``épidémiologie des communautés''.},
      school = {Université des Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {223 p.},
      url = {http://gemi.mpl.ird.fr/dysmi/ftp/phd.pdf}
    }
    					
    EDEN0094 Roche, B.; Guégan, J.-F. & Bousquet, F. Multi-agent systems in epidemiology: a first step for computational biology in the study of vector-borne disease transmissionS 2008 BMC Bioinformatics
    Vol. 435 (1) , pp. 1-9  
    article
    Abstract: BACKGROUND:Computational biology is often associated with genetic or genomic studies only. However, thanks to the increase of computational resources, computational models are appreciated as useful tools in many other scientific fields. Such modeling systems are particularly relevant for the study of complex systems, like the epidemiology of emerging infectious diseases. So far, mathematical models remain the main tool for the epidemiological and ecological analysis of infectious diseases, with SIR models could be seen as an implicit standard in epidemiology. Unfortunately, these models are based on differential equations and, therefore, can become very rapidly unmanageable due to the too many parameters which need to be taken into consideration. For instance, in the case of zoonotic and vector-borne diseases in wildlife many different potential host species could be involved in the life-cycle of disease transmission, and SIR models might not be the most suitable tool to truly capture the overall disease circulation within that environment. This limitation underlines the necessity to develop a standard spatial model that can cope with the transmission of disease in realistic ecosystems.RESULTS:Computational biology may prove to be flexible enough to take into account the natural complexity observed in both natural and man-made ecosystems. In this paper, we propose a new computational model to study the transmission of infectious diseases in a spatially explicit context. We developed a multi-agent system model for vector-borne disease transmission in a realistic spatial environment.CONCLUSION:Here we describe in detail the general behavior of this model that we hope will become a standard reference for the study of vector-borne disease transmission in wildlife. To conclude, we show how this simple model could be easily adapted and modified to be used as a common framework for further research developments in this field.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0094,
      author = {Roche, Benjamin and Guégan, Jean-Francois and Bousquet, François},
      title = {Multi-agent systems in epidemiology: a first step for computational biology in the study of vector-borne disease transmissionS},
      journal = {BMC Bioinformatics},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {435},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1--9},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2105-9-435}
    }
    					
    EDEN0048 Roche, B.; Lebarbenchon, C.; Gauthier-Clerc, M.; Chang, C.-M.; Thomas, F.; Renaud, F.; van der Werf, S. & Guégan, J.-F. Water-borne transmission drives avian influenza dynamics in wild birds: The case of the 2005-2006 epidemics in the Camargue area 2009 Infection, Genetics and Evolution
    Vol. 9 (5) , pp. 800 - 805  
    article influenza a, water-borne transmission, mathematical modeling
    Abstract: Transmission and persistence of avian influenza viruses (AIV) among wildlife remains an unresolved issue because it depends both on the ecology of the host (e.g. population density, migration) and on the environment (e.g. AIV persistence in water). We have developed a mathematical model that accounts for both AIV epidemics and bird community dynamics. The model is parameterized using bird counts and AIV prevalence data. Results suggest that the transmission patterns driving the dynamics of infection at our study site (Camargue, South of France) involved both a density-dependent and a water-borne transmission processes. Water-borne transmission is, however, the main determinant of the disease dynamics and observed prevalence level. This pattern of transmission highlights the importance of the persistence of viral particles in water in AIV dynamics in wild birds.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0048,
      author = {Benjamin Roche and Camille Lebarbenchon and Michel Gauthier-Clerc and Chung-Ming Chang and Frédéric Thomas and François Renaud and Sylvie van der Werf and Jean-François Guégan},
      title = {Water-borne transmission drives avian influenza dynamics in wild birds: The case of the 2005-2006 epidemics in the Camargue area},
      journal = {Infection, Genetics and Evolution},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {9},
      number = {5},
      pages = {800 - 805},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2009.04.009}
    }
    					
    EDEN0008 Rogers, D.J. Models for vectors and vector-borne diseases 2006 Advances in Parasitology
    Vol. 62 , pp. 1-35  
    article
    Abstract: The development of models for species' distributions is briefly reviewed, concentrating on logistic regression and discriminant analytical methods. Improvements in each type of modelling approach have led to increasingly accurate model predictions. This review addresses several key issues that now confront those wishing to choose the "right" sort of model for their own application. One major issue is the number of predictor variables to retain in the final model. Another is the problem of sparse datasets, or of data reported to administrative levels only, not to points. A third is the incorporation of spatial co-variance and auto-covariance in the modelling process. It is suggested that many of these problems can be resolved by adopting an information-theoretic approach whereby a group of reasonable potential models is specified in advance, and the "best" candidate model is selected among them. This approach of model selection and multi-model inference, using various derivatives of the Kullback-Leibler information or distance statistic, puts the biologist, with her or his insight, back in charge of the modelling process that is usually the domain of statisticians. Models are penalized when they contain too many variables; careful specification of the right set of candidate models may also be used to identify the importance of each predictor variable individually; and finally the degree to which the current "best" model improves on all the other models in the candidate set may be quantified. The ability definitely to exclude some models from the realm of all possible models appropriate for any particular distribution problem may be as important as the ability to identify the best current model.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0008,
      author = {D. J. Rogers},
      title = {Models for vectors and vector-borne diseases},
      journal = {Advances in Parasitology},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {62},
      pages = {1--35},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-308X(05)62001-5}
    }
    					
    EDEN0015 Rogers, D.J. & Randolph, S.E. Climate change and vector-borne diseases 2006 Advances in Parasitology
    Vol. 62 , pp. 345-381  
    article
    Abstract: In this review we examine formally the conditions under which vector-borne diseases are likely to change, and the directions of those changes, under various scenarios of climate change. We specify the criteria that must be met in order to conclude that climate change is having an effect on vector-borne diseases. We then take several examples from the literature and show how some of them meet these criteria, while others do not. For those that do not, there are alternative explanations that involve much more plausible drivers of the recorded changes in the diseases concerned.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0015,
      author = {D. J. Rogers and S. E. Randolph},
      title = {Climate change and vector-borne diseases},
      journal = {Advances in Parasitology},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {62},
      pages = {345--381},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-308X(05)62010-6}
    }
    					
    EDEN0010 Rogers, D.J.; Wilson, A.J.; Hay, S.I. & Graham, A.J. The global distribution of yellow fever and dengue 2006 Advances in Parasitology
    Vol. 62 , pp. 181-220  
    article
    Abstract: Yellow fever has been subjected to partial control for decades, but there are signs that case numbers are now increasing globally, with the risk of local epidemic outbreaks. Dengue case numbers have also increased dramatically during the past 40 years and different serotypes have invaded new geographical areas. Despite the temporal changes in these closely related diseases, and their enormous public health impact, few attempts have been made to collect a comprehensive dataset of their spatial and temporal distributions. For this review, records of the occurrence of both diseases during the 20th century have been collected together and are used to define their climatic limits using remotely sensed satellite data within a discriminant analytical model framework. The resulting risk maps for these two diseases identify their different environmental requirements, and throw some light on their potential for co-occurrence in Africa and South East Asia.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0010,
      author = {D. J. Rogers and A. J. Wilson and S. I. Hay and A. J. Graham},
      title = {The global distribution of yellow fever and dengue},
      journal = {Advances in Parasitology},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {62},
      pages = {181--220},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-308X(05)62006-4}
    }
    					
    EDEN0047 Scharlemann, J.P.W.; Benz, D.; Hay, S.I.; Purse, B.V.; Tatem, A.J.; Wint, G.R.W. & Rogers, D.J. Global data for ecology and epidemiology: a novel algorithm for temporal Fourier processing MODIS Data 2008 PLoS ONE
    Vol. 3 (1) , pp. e1408  
    article
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Remotely-sensed environmental data from earth-orbiting satellites are increasingly used to model the distribution and abundance of both plant and animal species, especially those of economic or conservation importance. Time series of data from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors on-board NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites offer the potential to capture environmental thermal and vegetation seasonality, through temporal Fourier analysis, more accurately than was previously possible using the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor data. MODIS data are composited over 8- or 16-day time intervals that pose unique problems for temporal Fourier analysis. Applying standard techniques to MODIS data can introduce errors of up to 30% in the estimation of the amplitudes and phases of the Fourier harmonics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present a novel spline-based algorithm that overcomes the processing problems of composited MODIS data. The algorithm is tested on artificial data generated using randomly selected values of both amplitudes and phases, and provides an accurate estimate of the input variables under all conditions. The algorithm was then applied to produce layers that capture the seasonality in MODIS data for the period from 2001 to 2005. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Global temporal Fourier processed images of 1 km MODIS data for Middle Infrared Reflectance, day- and night-time Land Surface Temperature (LST), Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) are presented for ecological and epidemiological applications. The finer spatial and temporal resolution, combined with the greater geolocational and spectral accuracy of the MODIS instruments, compared with previous multi-temporal data sets, mean that these data may be used with greater confidence in species' distribution modelling.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0047,
      author = {Scharlemann, J. P. W. and Benz, D. and Hay, S. I. and Purse, B. V. and Tatem, A. J. and Wint, G. R. W. and Rogers, D. J.},
      title = {Global data for ecology and epidemiology: a novel algorithm for temporal Fourier processing MODIS Data},
      journal = {PLoS ONE},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {3},
      number = {1},
      pages = {e1408},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001408}
    }
    					
    EDEN0054 Scharlemann, J.P.W.; Johnson, P.J.; Smith, A.A.; Macdonald, D.W. & Randolph, S.E. Trends in ixodid tick abundance and distribution in Great Britain 2008 Medical and Veterinary Entomology
    Vol. 22 (3) , pp. 238-247  
    article animals; deer, parasitology; demography; galliformes, parasitology; great britain; ixodidae, physiology; time factors
    Abstract: The popular, but rarely documented, view in Britain is that ticks have increased in distribution and abundance over recent years. To assess this, we gathered evidence for changes in tick distribution and abundance by distributing a survey questionnaire throughout Britain and by analysing trends in the prevalence of tick infestation on red grouse chicks Lagopus lagopus scoticus Latham (Galliformes: Tetranoidae), gathered over 19 years at three Scottish sites, and on deer (Cetartiodactyla: Cervidae) culled over 11 years on 26 Ministry of Defence (MoD) estates. Based on the survey, the current known distribution of Ixodes ricinus Linnaeus (Acari: Ixodidae) has expanded by 17% in comparison with the previously known distribution. The survey indicated that people perceive there to be more ticks today than in the past at 73% of locations throughout Britain. Reported increases in tick numbers coincided spatially with perceived increases in deer numbers. At locations where both tick and deer numbers were reported to have increased, these perceived changes occurred at similar times, raising the possibility of a causal link. At other locations, tick numbers were perceived to have increased despite reported declines in deer numbers. The perceptions revealed by the survey were corroborated by quantitative data from red grouse chicks and culled deer. Tick infestation prevalence increased over time on all grouse moors and 77% of MoD estates and decreased at six locations.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0054,
      author = {J. P W Scharlemann and P. J. Johnson and A. A. Smith and D. W. Macdonald and S. E. Randolph},
      title = {Trends in ixodid tick abundance and distribution in Great Britain},
      journal = {Medical and Veterinary Entomology},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {22},
      number = {3},
      pages = {238--247},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2915.2008.00734.x}
    }
    					
    EDEN0117 Sikutová, S.; Hornok, S.; Hubálek, Z.; Dolezálková, I.; Juricová, Z. & Rudolf, I. Serological survey of domestic animals for tick-borne encephalitis and Bhanja viruses in northeastern Hungary 2008 Veterinary Microbiology
    Vol. 135 (3-4) , pp. 267-271  
    article
    Abstract: Blood sera collected from 400 domestic animals (260 cattle, 100 Merino sheep, and 40 Hutzul horses) in northeastern Hungary in 2005 were examined for antibodies against two tick-borne viruses, tick-borne encephalitis flavivirus (TBEV) and Bhanja bunyavirus (BHAV). Using ELISA as screening test and plaque-reduction neutralization as confirmatory test, seropositivity to TBEV was found to be 26.5% in cattle, 7.0% in sheep, and 0.0% in horses. Among cattle, the animals up to 3 years old had significantly lower seroprevalence rate than those in older age groups. Natural foci of tick-borne encephalitis are obviously present in northeastern Hungary. On the other hand, no antibodies neutralizing BHAV were detected in the domestic animals.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0117,
      author = {Silvie Sikutová and Sándor Hornok and Zdenĕk Hubálek and Iva Dolezálková and Zina Juricová and Ivo Rudolf},
      title = {Serological survey of domestic animals for tick-borne encephalitis and Bhanja viruses in northeastern Hungary},
      journal = {Veterinary Microbiology},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {135},
      number = {3-4},
      pages = {267-271},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2008.09.082}
    }
    					
    EDEN0124 Soti, V.; Tran, A.; Bailly, J.-S.; Puech, C.; Seen, D.L. & Bégué, A. Assessing optical earth observation systems for mapping and monitoring temporary ponds in arid areas 2009 International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation
    Vol. 11 , pp. 344-351  
    article remote sensing, monitoring, temporary ponds, water indices, arid areas
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0124,
      author = {Valérie Soti and Annelise Tran and Jean-Stéphane Bailly and Christian Puech and Danny Lo Seen and Agnes Bégué},
      title = {Assessing optical earth observation systems for mapping and monitoring temporary ponds in arid areas},
      journal = {International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {11},
      pages = {344--351},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2009.05.005}
    }
    					
    EDEN0179 Sousa, C.A.G.C.D.C. Malaria vectorial capacity and competence of Anopheles atroparvus Van Thiel, 1927 (Diptera, Culicidae): Implications for the potential re-emergence of malaria in Portugal 2008 , pp. 191 p. School: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical   phdthesis
    Abstract: In Western-European Countries the risk of malaria re-emergence under current environmental and social conditions is considered minimal. However, in the last decade the number of imported cases has increased and several autochthonous cases have been reported from malaria–free places. If the predicted global climate change or other environmental modification would cause a large increase in mosquito vectorial capacity, malaria re-emergence in Europe could become possible. To assess how environmental driven factors may be linked to the risk of re-introducing malaria in Portugal, one must start by characterising the current status of its former vectors. By studying the receptivity and infectivity of present-day mosquito populations, it will be possible to identify factors that may trigger disease emergence and spreading, as well as to provide entomological data to be used in the identification of environmental induced changes of epidemiological significance. Aiming at contributing to these goals, this study has focused on the following objectives: (i) to estimate Anopheles atroparvus Van Thiel, 1927 vectorial capacity towards malaria and analyse other bioecological parameters with relevance to the introduction of the disease; (ii) to determine An. atroparvus vector competence for tropical strains of Plasmodium falciparum Welch, 1897. The region of Comporta presents a unique setting to assess the vector capacity and competence of An. atroparvus from Portugal. It was a former malaria hyperendemic region, where P. falciparum was the most prevalent malaria parasite. It is a semi-rural area with vast numbers of mosquito breeding sites and a highly mobile human population due mainly to tourism. It is also located fairly close to Lisbon which allows frequent visits to the study area. Nine would be the maximum estimated number of new daily inoculations that could occur if an infective human host would be introduced in the area. This estimate was obtained for a sporogonic cycle of 11 days (compatible with P. vivax development under optimal conditions) and the highest man biting rate obtained in this study (38 bites per person per day). This value of C is similar to some obtained for other malaria vectors. However, due to the overestimation of most of the computed variables, one can foresee that the receptivity of the area to the re-emergence of the disease is very limited. With the exception of August 2001, the threshold of C=1 was only surpassed during winter/spring months, when parous rates were above 0.95 but abundances were lowest.
    Out of 2,207 An. atroparvus that were sent to Nijmegen Medical Centre to be artificially infected with the tropical strains of P. falciparum, more than 790 specimens took one or two infected blood meals. Anopheles atroparvus females infection was successful in a single experiment. These specimens took two infective feeds with a seven days interval.
    Blood fed females were kept always at 26ºC with the exception of a 19 hours period that occurred two hours after the second blood meal and during which mosquitoes were placed at 21ºC. Out of the 37 mosquitoes that were dissected, five presented oocysts in their midguts. Prevalence of infection was 13.5% and the mean number of oocysts per infected female was 14, ranging between 2 to 75 oocysts per infected midgut. It was confirmed that An. atroparvus is, at the most, a low competent vector regarding tropical strains of P. falciparum. Artificial infection experiments were not carried out beyond the oocysts phase, thus no conclusion can be drawn regarding sporozoite formation and invasion of salivary glands. Nevertheless, An. atroparvus complete refractoriness to tropical P. falciparum strains seems less certain than at the beginning of this study.
    This study has produced an update on the bionomics of An. atroparvus in Portugal and, for the first time, a comprehensive assessment of its vectorial capacity and competence for the transmission of human malaria parasites. It was also attempted to determine if the biology and behaviour of this species has suffered any major switches since the time malaria was an endemic disease in Portugal. The results obtained in this study support the idea that the establishment of malaria in Portugal is a possible but unlikely event in the present ecological conditions.
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{EDEN0179,
      author = {Carla Alexandra Gama Carrilho Da Costa Sousa},
      title = {Malaria vectorial capacity and competence of Anopheles atroparvus Van Thiel, 1927 (Diptera, Culicidae): Implications for the potential re-emergence of malaria in Portugal},
      school = {Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {191 p.}
    }
    					
    EDEN0020 Stanko, M.; Krasnov, B.R.; Miklisova, D. & Morand, S. Simple epidemiological model predicts the relationships between prevalence and abundance in ixodid ticks 2007 Parasitology
    Vol. 134 (Pt 1) , pp. 59-68  
    article animals; arvicolinae; ixodes; larva; murinae; prevalence; rodent diseases; seasons; slovakia; tick infestations
    Abstract: We tested whether the prevalence of ticks can be predicted reliably from a simple epidemiological model that takes into account only mean abundance and its variance. We used data on the abundance and distribution of larvae and nymphs of 2 ixodid ticks parasitic on small mammals (Apodemus agrarius, Apodemus flavicollis, Apodemus uralensis, Clethrionomys glareolus and Microtus arvalis) in central Europe. Ixodes trianguliceps is active all year round, occurs in the study area in the mountain and sub-mountain habitats only and inhabits mainly host burrows and nests, whereas Ixodes ricinus occurs mainly during the warmer seasons, occupies a large variety of habitats and quests for hosts outside their shelters. In I. ricinus, the models with k values calculated from Taylor's power law overestimated prevalences. However, if moment estimates of k corrected for host number were used instead, expected prevalences of both larvae and nymphs I. ricinus in either host did not differ significantly from observed prevalences. In contrast, prevalences of larvae and nymphs of I. trianguliceps predicted by models using parameters of Taylor's power law did not differ significantly from observed prevalences, whereas the models with moment estimates of k corrected for host number in some cases under-estimated relatively lower larval prevalences and over-estimated relatively higher larval prevalences, but predicted nymphal prevalences well.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0020,
      author = {M. Stanko and B. R. Krasnov and D. Miklisova and S. Morand},
      title = {Simple epidemiological model predicts the relationships between prevalence and abundance in ixodid ticks},
      journal = {Parasitology},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {134},
      number = {Pt 1},
      pages = {59--68},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182006001296}
    }
    					
    EDEN0034 Stoltz, M.; Ahlm, C.; Lundkvist, . & Klingström, J. Lambda interferon (IFN-lambda) in serum is decreased in Hantavirus-infected patients, and in vitro-established infection is insensitive to treatment with all IFNs and inhibits IFN-gamma-induced nitric oxide production. 2007 Journal of Virology
    Vol. 81 (16) , pp. 8685-8691  
    article cells, cultured; cytokines; hantavirus; hantavirus pulmonary syndrome; humans; interferon type ii; interferon-alpha; interferons; interleukin-1beta; interleukins; nitric oxide; phosphorylation; pulmonary heart disease; stat1 transcription factor; syndrome; virus replication
    Abstract: Hantaviruses, causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS), are known to be sensitive to nitric oxide (NO) and to pretreatment with type I and II interferons (alpha interferon [IFN-alpha]/IFN-beta and IFN-gamma, respectively). Elevated serum levels of NO and IFN-gamma have been observed in HFRS patients, but little is known regarding the systemic levels of other IFNs and the possible effects of hantaviruses on innate antiviral immune responses. In Puumala virus-infected HFRS patients (n = 18), we report that the levels of IFN-alpha and IFN-beta are similar, whereas the level of IFN-lambda (type III IFN) is significantly decreased, during acute (day of hospitalization) compared to the convalescent phase. The possible antiviral effects of IFN-lambda on the prototypic hantavirus Hantaan virus (HTNV) replication was then investigated. Pretreatment of A549 cells with IFN-lambda alone inhibited HTNV replication, and IFN-lambda combined with IFN-gamma induced additive antiviral effects. We then studied the effect of postinfection treatment with IFNs. Interestingly, an already-established HTNV infection was insensitive to subsequent IFN-alpha, -beta, -gamma, and -lambda stimulation, and HTNV-infected cells produced less NO compared to noninfected cells when stimulated with IFN-gamma and IL-1beta. Furthermore, less phosphorylated STAT1 after IFN treatment was observed in the nuclei of infected cells than in those of noninfected cells. The results suggest that hantavirus can interfere with the activation of antiviral innate immune responses in patients and inhibit the antiviral effects of all IFNs. We believe that future studies addressing the mechanisms by which hantaviruses interfere with the activation and shaping of immune responses may bring more knowledge regarding HFRS and HCPS pathogenesis.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0034,
      author = {M. Stoltz and C. Ahlm and  Lundkvist and J. Klingström},
      title = {Lambda interferon (IFN-lambda) in serum is decreased in Hantavirus-infected patients, and in vitro-established infection is insensitive to treatment with all IFNs and inhibits IFN-gamma-induced nitric oxide production.},
      journal = {Journal of Virology},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {81},
      number = {16},
      pages = {8685--8691},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00415-07}
    }
    					
    EDEN0046 Sumilo, D.; Asokliene, L.; Avsic-Zupanc, T.; Bormane, A.; Vasilenko, V.; Lucenko, I.; Golovljova, I. & Randolph, S.E. Behavioural responses to perceived risk of tick-borne encephalitis: vaccination and avoidance in the Baltics and Slovenia 2008 Vaccine
    Vol. 26 (21) , pp. 2580-2588  
    article adolescent; adult; aged; aged, 80 and over; animals; encephalitis viruses, tick-borne, immunology; encephalitis, tick-borne, epidemiology/psychology; female; humans; incidence; latvia, epidemiology; lithuania, epidemiology; male; middle aged; slovenia, epidemiology; socioeconomic factors; viral vaccines, immunology
    Abstract: Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) incidence increased markedly in the Baltics and Slovenia in the early 1990s, but then declined again in some places. Our analyses of temporal and spatial data on TBE incidence and vaccination revealed that over 1970-2005 up-take of vaccination varied in both time and space according to incidence, i.e. was apparently responsive to perceived risk. Since 1999, however, decreases in incidence in many counties within each country have far exceeded vaccination rates or immunity through natural exposure, and in Latvia and Lithuania these changes are correlated with previous incidence. Survey data on human activities in Latvia revealed that people in socio-economic groups whose behaviour put them at highest risk of exposure to ticks in forests, including people with lower education and lowest incomes, are least likely to be vaccinated. We conclude that risk avoidance through changing human behaviour has driven incidence-dependent decreases in TBE infection, but targeted vaccination campaigns could provide more secure protection.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0046,
      author = {Dana Sumilo and Loreta Asokliene and Tatjana Avsic-Zupanc and Antra Bormane and Veera Vasilenko and Irina Lucenko and Irina Golovljova and Sarah E Randolph},
      title = {Behavioural responses to perceived risk of tick-borne encephalitis: vaccination and avoidance in the Baltics and Slovenia},
      journal = {Vaccine},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {26},
      number = {21},
      pages = {2580--2588},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.03.029}
    }
    					
    EDEN0041 Sumilo, D.; Asokliene, L.; Bormane, A.; Vasilenko, V.; Golovljova, I. & Randolph, S.E. Climate change cannot explain the upsurge of tick-borne encephalitis in the Baltics 2007 PLoS ONE
    Vol. 2 (6) , pp. e500  
    article
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Pathogens transmitted by ticks cause human disease on a greater scale than any other vector-borne infections in Europe, and have increased dramatically over the past 2-3 decades. Reliable records of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) since 1970 show an especially sharp upsurge in cases in Eastern Europe coincident with the end of Soviet rule, including the three Baltic countries, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, where national incidence increased from 1992 to 1993 by 64, 175 and 1,065 respectively. At the county level within each country, however, the timing and degree of increase showed marked heterogeneity. Climate has also changed over this period, prompting an almost universal assumption of causality. For the first time, we analyse climate and TBE epidemiology at sufficiently fine spatial and temporal resolution to question this assumption. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Detailed analysis of instrumental records of climate has revealed a significant step increase in spring-time daily maximum temperatures in 1989. The seasonal timing and precise level of this warming were indeed such as could promote the transmission of TBE virus between larval and nymphal ticks co-feeding on rodents. These changes in climate, however, are virtually uniform across the Baltic region and cannot therefore explain the marked spatio-temporal heterogeneity in TBE epidemiology. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Instead, it is proposed that climate is just one of many different types of factors, many arising from the socio-economic transition associated with the end of Soviet rule, that have acted synergistically to increase both the abundance of infected ticks and the exposure of humans to these ticks. Understanding the precise differential contribution of each factor as a cause of the observed epidemiological heterogeneity will help direct control strategies.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0041,
      author = {Dana Sumilo and Loreta Asokliene and Antra Bormane and Veera Vasilenko and Irina Golovljova and Sarah E Randolph},
      title = {Climate change cannot explain the upsurge of tick-borne encephalitis in the Baltics},
      journal = {PLoS ONE},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {2},
      number = {6},
      pages = {e500},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000500}
    }
    					
    EDEN0028 Sumilo, D.; Bormane, A.; Asokliene, L.; Lucenko, I.; Vasilenko, V. & Randolph, S. Tick-borne encephalitis in the Baltic States: identifying risk factors in space and time 2006 International Journal of Medical Microbiology
    Vol. 296 Suppl 40 , pp. 76-79  
    article animals; climate; encephalitis, tick-borne; estonia; humans; ixodes; latvia; lithuania; risk factors; seasons; vaccination
    Abstract: This paper presents preliminary results in our investigations of the biological (abiotic and biotic) and non-biological causes of the spatial heterogeneity and temporal change of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), both within and between Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Spatial analysis revealed that the land cover and precise seasonal patterns of climatic indices (temperature and normalized difference vegetation index) can explain 55% of the observed spatial variation in TBE incidence over the period 1993-98 across all the Baltic States. Temporal analysis of climatic variables indicates a very specific change in spring temperature conditions from 1993 onwards that could enhance the transmission of TBE virus. Further time series analysis of climate, together with analysis of biotic factors, socio-economic conditions, and human behaviour is being undertaken to explain the epidemiological patterns more fully.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0028,
      author = {Dana Sumilo and Antra Bormane and Loreta Asokliene and Irina Lucenko and Veera Vasilenko and Sarah Randolph},
      title = {Tick-borne encephalitis in the Baltic States: identifying risk factors in space and time},
      journal = {International Journal of Medical Microbiology},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {296 Suppl 40},
      pages = {76--79},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmm.2005.12.006}
    }
    					
    EDEN0066 Sumilo, D.; Bormane, A.; Asokliene, L.; Vasilenko, V.; Golovljova, I.; Avsic-Zupanc, T.; Hubálek, Z. & Randolph, S.E. Socio-economic factors in the differential upsurge of tick-borne encephalitis in central and eastern Europe 2008 Reviews in Medical Virology
    Vol. 18 (2) , pp. 81-95  
    article
    Abstract: Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), the most serious widespread vector-borne disease of humans in Europe, increased from 2- to 30-fold in many Central and Eastern European countries from 1992 to 1993, coinciding with independence from Soviet rule. Unemployment and low income have been shown in Latvia to be statistically associated with high-risk behaviour involving harvest of wild foods from tick-infested forests, and also with not being vaccinated against TBE. Archival data for 1970--2005 record major changes in the agricultural and industrial sectors, and consequent changes in the abiotic and biotic environment and socio-economic conditions, which could have increased the abundance of infected ticks and the contact of humans with those ticks. For example, abandoned agricultural fields became suitable for rodent transmission hosts; use of pesticides and emissions of atmospheric industrial pollutants plummeted; wildlife hosts for ticks increased; tick populations appear to have responded; unemployment and inequality increased in all countries. These factors, by acting synergistically but differentially between and within each country, can explain the marked spatio-temporal heterogeneities in TBE epidemiology better than can climate change alone, which is too uniform across wide areas. Different degrees of socio-economic upheaval caused by political transition in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovenia and the Czech Republic can apparently explain the marked variation in TBE upsurge. Causal linkage between national socio-economic conditions and epidemiology is strongly indicated by striking correlations across eight countries between the degree of upsurge of TBE and both poverty and household expenditure on food (R(2) = 0.533 and 0.716, respectively). Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0066,
      author = {D. Sumilo and A. Bormane and L. Asokliene and V. Vasilenko and I. Golovljova and T. Avsic-Zupanc and Z. Hubálek and S. E. Randolph},
      title = {Socio-economic factors in the differential upsurge of tick-borne encephalitis in central and eastern Europe},
      journal = {Reviews in Medical Virology},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {18},
      number = {2},
      pages = {81--95},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rmv.566}
    }
    					
    EDEN0101 Sumilo, D.; Bormane, A.; Vasilenko, V.; Golovljova, I.; Asokliene, L.; Zygutiene, M. & Randolph, S. Upsurge of tick-borne encephalitis in the Baltic States at the time of political transition, independent of changes in public health practices 2009 Clinical Microbiology and Infection
    Vol. 15 (1) , pp. 75-80  
    article baltic states; encephalitis, tick-borne, diagnosis/epidemiology/therapy; politics; population surveillance; public health practice, statistics /&/ numerical data; questionnaires; socioeconomic factors; viral vaccines
    Abstract: Despite evidence that socio-economic factors associated with political transition played a major causal role in the abrupt upsurge in tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in the newly independent Baltic States, doubts are still repeatedly expressed about the importance of these factors relative to changes in public health practices that may have affected merely the registration of cases. In response to these doubts, evidence of relevant practices of surveillance, registration, diagnosis, awareness and immunization is presented as taken from archived data and interviews with experienced medical practitioners. There were changes that could have had neutral, negative or positive impacts on recorded TBE incidence, but the variable timing in these changes at both national and regional levels is not consistent with their having been responsible for the epidemiological patterns observed in the early 1990 s.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0101,
      author = {D. Sumilo and A. Bormane and V. Vasilenko and I. Golovljova and L. Asokliene and M. Zygutiene and S. Randolph},
      title = {Upsurge of tick-borne encephalitis in the Baltic States at the time of political transition, independent of changes in public health practices},
      journal = {Clinical Microbiology and Infection},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {15},
      number = {1},
      pages = {75--80},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2008.02121.x}
    }
    					
    EDEN0125 Tagliapietra, V.; Rosà, R.; Hauffe, H.C.; Laakkonen, J.; Voutilainen, L.; Vapalahti, O.; Vaheri, A.; Henttonen, H. & Rizzoli, A. Spatial and temporal dynamics of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in wild rodents, northern Italy. 2009 Emerging Infectious Diseases
    Vol. 15 (7) , pp. 1019-1025  
    article animals; animals, wild, virology; antibodies, viral, blood; arenaviridae infections, transmission; arvicolinae, virology; female; italy; lymphocytic choriomeningitis, transmission/virology; lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, immunology/isolation /&/ purification; male; mice, virology; population density; rodentia, virology; sex characteristics
    Abstract: We determined the prevalence of infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) among small mammals in northern Italy and analyzed long-term dynamics of LCMV in a rodent population in the province of Trento. LCMV is circulating among the most widespread and common wild rodent species in this area (Apodemus flavicollis, Myodes glareolus, and Microtus arvalis); overall prevalence is 6.8 During 2000-2006, intensive monitoring of LCMV in a population of yellow-necked mice (A. flavicollis) showed a positive correlation between prevalence of infection and rodent density. At the individual level, weight and sex appeared to correlate with antibody prevalence, which suggests that horizontal transmission of LCMV occurs principally among heavier, older males and occurs during fighting. Isolation and genetic characterization of this virus will be the crucial next steps for a better understanding of its ecology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0125,
      author = {Valentina Tagliapietra and Roberto Rosà and Heidi C Hauffe and Juha Laakkonen and Liina Voutilainen and Olli Vapalahti and Antti Vaheri and Heikki Henttonen and Annapaola Rizzoli},
      title = {Spatial and temporal dynamics of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in wild rodents, northern Italy.},
      journal = {Emerging Infectious Diseases},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {15},
      number = {7},
      pages = {1019--1025}
    }
    					
    EDEN0207 Tersago, K. Spatial and temporal variation of Puumala Hantavirus infection in Belgium: an eco-epidemiological study 2010 , pp. 183 p. School: Antwerpen University, Science Faculty, Biology Department   phdthesis
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{EDEN0207,
      author = {Katrien Tersago},
      title = {Spatial and temporal variation of Puumala Hantavirus infection in Belgium: an eco-epidemiological study},
      school = {Antwerpen University, Science Faculty, Biology Department},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {183 p.}
    }
    					
    EDEN0042 Tersago, K.; Schreurs, A.; Linard, C.; Verhagen, R.; Dongen, S.V. & Leirs, H. Population, environmental, and community effects on local bank vole (Myodes glareolus) Puumala virus infection in an area with low human incidence. 2008 Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
    Vol. 8 (2) , pp. 235-244  
    article
    Abstract: In this study, the distribution of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infection in local bank vole Myodes glareolus populations in an area with low human PUUV infection (nephropathia epidemica [NE]) incidence in northern Belgium was monitored for 2 consecutive years. Bank voles were trapped in preferred habitat and tested for anti-PUUV IgG. Infection data were related to individual bank vole features, population demography, and environmental variables. Rare occurrence of PUUV infection was found and PUUV prevalence was low compared with data from the high NE incidence area in southern Belgium. Small-scale climatic differences seemed to play a role in PUUV occurrence, vegetation index and deciduous forest patch size both influenced PUUV prevalence and number of infected voles in a positive way. The data suggested a density threshold in vole populations below which PUUV infection does not occur. This threshold may vary between years, but the abundance of bank voles does not seem to affect the degree of PUUV seroprevalence further. We found indications for a dilution effect on PUUV prevalence, dependent on the relative proportion of nonhost wood mice Apodemus sylvaticus in a study site. In conclusion, we regard the combination of a dilution effect, a possible threshold density that depends on local conditions, and a higher fragmentation of suitable bank vole habitat in our study area as plausible explanations for the sparse occurrence of PUUV infection and low prevalence detected. Thus, beside human activity patterns, local environmental conditions and rodent community structure are also likely to play a role in determining PUUV infection risk for humans.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0042,
      author = {K. Tersago and A. Schreurs and C. Linard and R. Verhagen and S. Van Dongen and H. Leirs},
      title = {Population, environmental, and community effects on local bank vole (Myodes glareolus) Puumala virus infection in an area with low human incidence.},
      journal = {Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {8},
      number = {2},
      pages = {235--244},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2007.0160}
    }
    					
    EDEN0097 Tersago, K.; Verhagen, R.; Servais, A.; Heyman, P.; Ducoffre, G. & Leirs, H. Hantavirus disease (nephropathia epidemica) in Belgium: effects of tree seed production and climate 2008 Epidemiology and Infection
    Vol. 137 , pp. 250-256  
    article
    Abstract: Recently, human cases of nephropathia epidemica (NE) due to Puumala virus infection in Europe have increased. Following the hypothesis that high reservoir host abundance induces higher transmission rates to humans, explanations for this altered epidemiology must be sought in factors that cause bank vole (Myodes glareolus) abundance peaks. In Western Europe, these abundance peaks are often related to high tree seed production, which is supposedly triggered by specific weather conditions. We evaluated the relationship between tree seed production, climate and NE incidence in Belgium and show that NE epidemics are indeed preceded by abundant tree seed production. Moreover, a direct link between climate and NE incidence is found. High summer and autumn temperatures, 2 years and 1 year respectively before NE occurrence, relate to high NE incidence. This enables early forecasting of NE outbreaks. Since future climate change scenarios predict higher temperatures in Europe, we should regard Puumala virus as an increasing health threat.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0097,
      author = {K. Tersago and R. Verhagen and A. Servais and P. Heyman and G. Ducoffre and H. Leirs},
      title = {Hantavirus disease (nephropathia epidemica) in Belgium: effects of tree seed production and climate},
      journal = {Epidemiology and Infection},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {137},
      pages = {250--256},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268808000940}
    }
    					
    EDEN0126 Toledo, A.; Olmeda, A.S.; Escudero, R.; Jado, I.; Valcarcel, F.; Casado-Nistal, M.A.; Rodriguez-Vargas, M.; Gil, H. & Anda, P. Tick-borne zoonotic bacteria in ticks collected from Central Spain 2009 American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
    Vol. 81 (1) , pp. 67-74  
    article
    Abstract: The prevalence of tick-borne and related bacteria infecting adult ticks in central Spain was assessed by molecular methods. Six areas were sampled monthly during a 2-year longitudinal study. A total of 1,038 questing and 442 feeding ticks, belonging to eight different species, were tested. The most abundant species were Hyalomma lusitanicum (54% of captures), followed by Dermacentor marginatus (23%) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (10%). Four human pathogens, including seven Rickettsia species, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Francisella tularensis, were detected at percentages of 19.0, 2.2, 1.7, and 0.5, respectively, whereas Bartonella spp. was never detected. In terms of infection and tick abundance, H. lusitanicum seems to be the most significant tick species in the area, carrying three of the five agents tested, and the anthropophilic tick, D. marginatum, infected with Rickettsia spp. and F. tularensis, is the most relevant in terms of public health. The significance of these data is discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0126,
      author = {Toledo, Alvaro and Olmeda, A. Sonia and Escudero, Raquel and Jado, Isabel and Valcarcel, Felix and Casado-Nistal, Miguel A. and Rodriguez-Vargas, Manuela and Gil, Horacio and Anda, Pedro},
      title = {Tick-borne zoonotic bacteria in ticks collected from Central Spain},
      journal = {American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {81},
      number = {1},
      pages = {67-74}
    }
    					
    EDEN0070 Tollenaere, C.; Bryja, J.; Galan, M.; Cadet, P.; Deter, J.; Chaval, Y.; Berthier, K.; Salvador, A.R.; Voutilainen, L.; Laakkonen, J.; Henttonen, H.; Cosson, J.-F. & Charbonnel, N. Multiple parasites mediate balancing selection at two MHC class II genes in the fossorial water vole: insights from multivariate analyses and population genetics 2008 Journal of Evolutionary Biology
    Vol. 21 (5) , pp. 1307-1320  
    article
    Abstract: We investigated the factors mediating selection acting on two MHC class II genes (DQA and DRB) in water vole (Arvicola scherman) natural populations in the French Jura Mountains. Population genetics showed significant homogeneity in allelic frequencies at the DQA1 locus as opposed to neutral markers (nine microsatellites), indicating balancing selection acting on this gene. Moreover, almost exhaustive screening for parasites, including gastrointestinal helminths, brain coccidia and antibodies against viruses responsible for zoonoses, was carried out. We applied a co-inertia approach to the genetic and parasitological data sets to avoid statistical problems related to multiple testing. Two alleles, Arte-DRB-11 and Arte-DRB-15, displayed antagonistic associations with the nematode Trichuris arvicolae, revealing the potential parasite-mediated selection acting on DRB locus. Selection mechanisms acting on the two MHC class II genes thus appeared different. Moreover, overdominance as balancing selection mechanism was showed highly unlikely in this system.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0070,
      author = {C. Tollenaere and J. Bryja and M. Galan and P. Cadet and J. Deter and Y. Chaval and K. Berthier and A. Ribas Salvador and L. Voutilainen and J. Laakkonen and H. Henttonen and J-F. Cosson and N. Charbonnel},
      title = {Multiple parasites mediate balancing selection at two MHC class II genes in the fossorial water vole: insights from multivariate analyses and population genetics},
      journal = {Journal of Evolutionary Biology},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {21},
      number = {5},
      pages = {1307--1320},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1420-9101.2008.01563.x}
    }
    					
    EDEN0030 Tran, A.; Gaidet, N.; L'Ambert, G.; Balenghien, T.; Balança, G.; Chevalier, V.; Soti, V.; Ivanes, C.; Etter, E.; Schaffner, F. & others On the use of remote sensing for the ecological description of multi-host disease systems: a case study on West Nile Virus in Southern France 2007 Veterinaria Italiana
    Vol. 43 , pp. 967-87  
    article
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0030,
      author = {Tran, A. and Gaidet, N. and L'Ambert, G. and Balenghien, T. and Balança, G. and Chevalier, V. and Soti, V. and Ivanes, C. and Etter, E. and Schaffner, F. and others},
      title = {On the use of remote sensing for the ecological description of multi-host disease systems: a case study on West Nile Virus in Southern France},
      journal = {Veterinaria Italiana},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {43},
      pages = {967--87}
    }
    					
    EDEN0059 Tran, A.; Ponçon, N.; Toty, C.; Linard, C.; Guis, H.; Ferré, J.; Lo Seen, D.; Roger, F.; de La Rocque, S.; Fontenille, D. & Baldet, T. Using remote sensing to map larval and adult populations of Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera: Culicidae) a potential malaria vector in Southern France 2008 International Journal of Health Geographics
    Vol. 7 (1) , pp. 1-9  
    article
    Abstract: ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Although malaria disappeared from southern France more than 60 years ago, suspicions of recent autochthonous transmission in the French Mediterranean coast support the idea that the area could still be subject to malaria transmission. The main potential vector of malaria in the Camargue area, the largest river delta in southern France, is the mosquito Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera: Culicidae). In the context of recent climatic and landscape changes, the evaluation of the risk of emergence or re-emergence of such a major disease is of great importance in Europe. When assessing the risk of emergence of vector-borne diseases, it is crucial to be able to characterize the arthropod vectoras spatial distribution. Given that remote sensing techniques can describe some of the environmental parameters which drive this distribution, satellite imagery or aerial photographs could be used for vector mapping. RESULTS: In this study, we propose a method to map larval and adult populations of An. hyrcanus based on environmental indices derived from high spatial resolution imagery. The analysis of the link between entomological field data on An. hyrcanus larvae and environmental indices (biotopes, distance to the nearest main productive breeding sites of this species i.e., rice fields) led to the definition of a larval index, defined as the probability of observing An. hyrcanus larvae in a given site at least once over a year. Independent accuracy assessments showed a good agreement between observed and predicted values (sensitivity and specificity of the logistic regression model being 0.76 and 0.78, respectively). An adult index was derived from the larval index by averaging the larval index within a buffer around the trap location. This index was highly correlated with observed adult abundance values (Pearson r = 0.97, p<0.05). This allowed us to generate predictive maps of An. hyrcanus larval and adult populations from the landscape indices. CONCLUSIONS: This work shows that it is possible to use high resolution satellite imagery to map malaria vector spatial distribution. It also confirms the potential of remote sensing to help target risk areas, and constitutes a first essential step in assessing the risk of re-emergence of malaria in southern France.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0059,
      author = {Tran, A. and Ponçon, N. and Toty, C. and Linard, C. and Guis, H. and Ferré, J.B. and Lo Seen, D. and Roger, F. and de La Rocque, S. and Fontenille, D. and Baldet, T.},
      title = {Using remote sensing to map larval and adult populations of Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera: Culicidae) a potential malaria vector in Southern France},
      journal = {International Journal of Health Geographics},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {7},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1--9},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-072X-7-9}
    }
    					
    EDEN0078 Vaheri, A.; Vapalahti, O. & Plyusnin, A. How to diagnose hantavirus infections and detect them in rodents and insectivores 2008 Reviews in Medical Virology
    Vol. 18 (4) , pp. 277-288  
    article animals; antibodies, viral, analysis; hantavirus infections, diagnosis; hantavirus, isolation /&/ purification; humans; insectivora, virology; rna, viral, analysis; rodentia, virology
    Abstract: Hantaviruses are carried by rodents and insectivores in which they cause persistent and generally asymptomatic infections. Several hantaviruses can infect humans and many of them cause either haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the Americas. In humans hantavirus infections are diagnosed using IgM-capture tests but also by RT-PCR detection of viral RNA. For detection of hantavirus infections in rodents and insectivores, serology followed by immunoblotting of, for example, lung tissue, and RT-PCR detection of viral RNA may be used, and if of interest followed by sequencing and virus isolation. For sero/genotyping of hantavirus infections in humans and carrier animals neutralisation tests/RNA sequencing are required. Hantaviruses are prime examples of emerging and re-emerging infections and it seems likely that many new hantaviruses will be detected in the near future.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0078,
      author = {Antti Vaheri and Olli Vapalahti and Alexander Plyusnin},
      title = {How to diagnose hantavirus infections and detect them in rodents and insectivores},
      journal = {Reviews in Medical Virology},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {18},
      number = {4},
      pages = {277--288},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rmv.581}
    }
    					
    EDEN0133 Vanwambeke, S.O.; Sumilo, D.; Bormane, A.; Lambin, E.F. & Randolph, S.E. Landscape predictors of tick-Borne encephalitis in Latvia: land cover, land use, and land ownership 2009 Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
    Vol. Ahead of print , pp. 1-10  
    article
    Abstract: Abstract Although the presence of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus circulating in tick populations depends on large-scale patterns of climate, and the local density of infected ticks depends on the abundance of mammalian hosts, the risk of human infection depends on the access and use by human populations of tick-infested habitats, particularly forests, at the landscape level. We investigated the incidence of reported TBE cases in rural parishes (i.e., municipalities) in Latvia. The following major characteristics of parishes were considered: whether their environment is suitable for tick and tick-host populations (depending on land cover); whether the local human population is likely to enter the forest on a regular base (depending on land use); and whether the spatial distributions of these two aspects are likely to intersect, through access rules (as a function of land ownership). The results indicated that all three aspects are important in explaining and predicting the spatial distribution of TBE cases in the rural areas of Latvia. The concept of landscape is here given new depth by consideration of its physical structure, its use by human populations, and its accessibility as modulated by ownership.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0133,
      author = {Sophie O Vanwambeke and Dana Sumilo and Antra Bormane and Eric F Lambin and Sarah E Randolph},
      title = {Landscape predictors of tick-Borne encephalitis in Latvia: land cover, land use, and land ownership},
      journal = {Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {Ahead of print},
      pages = {1--10},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2009.0116}
    }
    					
    EDEN0031 Vladimirescu, A.F.; Coipan, C.E.; Ionescu, L.; Bicheru, S.; Alexe, A. & Nicolescu, G. Molecular approach for West Nile virus (WNV) detection and strain identification by RT-PCR, nested PCR, and sequencing in Romania 2005 Romanian Journal of Genetics
    Vol. 1 (2) , pp. 37-45  
    article
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDEN0031,
      author = {A. F. Vladimirescu and C. E. Coipan and L. Ionescu and S. Bicheru and A. Alexe and G. Nicolescu},
      title = {Molecular approach for West Nile virus (WNV) detection and strain identification by RT-PCR, nested PCR, and sequencing in Romania},
      journal = {Romanian Journal of Genetics},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {1},
      number = {2},
      pages = {37-45}
    }
    					

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